Connected and automated vehicles

Cover of Education and Training for Drivers of Assisted and Automated Vehicles
Education and Training for Drivers of Assisted and Automated Vehicles
  • Publication no: AP-R616-20
  • ISBN: 978-1-925854-94-7
  • Published: 17 March 2020

This report documents the outcomes of research designed to:

  • examine what role, if any, registration and licensing authorities should undertake to ensure that licence applicants are competent in the use of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS; SAE Levels 0-2) and automated driving features (ADF; SAE Level 3); and
  • determine whether there is a need to review the current driver licensing framework to address gaps (perceived or real) in driver competency when operating these systems and features.

The study involved a literature review, stakeholder consultations, a training needs analysis and an assessment of key issues specified by Austroads. It concluded that registration and licensing authorities have a potential role to play in the learning and assessment of the use of ADAS/ADF by light and heavy vehicle drivers, but that there is no need to review the current driver licensing framework; however, research and crash data in relation to ADAS/ADF should be monitored to identify if future changes are justified. Options for specific learning and assessment initiatives are proposed.

Join us for a free webinar with authors Professor Michael Regan, Dr Prasannah Prabhakharan, Phil Wallace and Mitch Cunningham, on Wednesday 13 May 2020, 12:30 pm AEST for a discussion about  the skills, knowledge and behaviours drivers need, now and in the future, to safely operate cars and trucks equipped with higher levels of automation.

No charge but registration essential. Can't make the live session? Register and we'll send you a link to the recording.

Register now!

  • Summary
  • Glossary of Terms and Acronyms
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Background
    • 1.2 Project Purpose
    • 1.3 Project Objectives
    • 1.4 Intended End Users
    • 1.5 Project Research Tasks
    • 1.6 Scope
    • 1.7 Terminology
    • 1.8 Structure of this Report
  • 2. Literature Review and Web Search
    • 2.1 Method for Literature Review
    • 2.2 Method for Web Search
    • 2.3 Emerging Skills Needed to Operate ADAS Features
    • 2.4 The Traditional Driving Task
      • 2.4.1 Michon (1985)
      • 2.4.2 Brown (1986)
    • 2.5 Impact of Automation on Driving
      • 2.5.1 SAE Levels 0, 1 and 2
      • 2.5.2 SAE Levels 3, 4 and 5
    • 2.6 The Changing Role of the Driver
    • 2.7 Skills Required for Using ADAS and Automated Driving Features
      • 2.7.1 Skills needed to monitor the normal functioning of ADAS and automated driving features
      • 2.7.2 Skills needed to respond to failures or limitations of automated driving systems
      • 2.7.3 Complementary perspectives
      • 2.7.4 Human factors issues
    • 2.8 Current ADAS and Automated Driving Features
    • 2.9 Vehicle Features Categorised as SAE Levels 0 to 3
    • 2.10 Consumer Knowledge of ADAS
    • 2.11 Consumer Preferences for Training on ADAS
      • 2.11.1 Actual methods of education and training employed by customers
      • 2.11.2 Preferred methods of education and training
      • 2.11.3 Discrepancies between actual and preferred education and training methods
      • 2.11.4 Demographic differences in education and training preferences
    • 2.12 Attaining Knowledge: Information Sources about ADAS Functions and Operation (First Owner)
    • 2.13 Attaining Knowledge: Information Sources about ADAS Functions and Operation (Subsequent
    • Owners/Drivers)
    • 2.14 Education and Training: Current Practices Around ADAS and Automated Vehicle Technologies
      • 2.14.1 Information relevant to driver education and training provided by registration and licensing
      • authorities
      • 2.14.2 Key findings
    • 2.15 Education and Training: Misuse of ADAS or Automated Driving Technologies
      • 2.15.1 Misuse of automated vehicle technologies and road safety implications
      • 2.15.2 Enhanced driver education and training to prevent and mitigate the effects of automation misuse
    • 2.16 Incorporation of ADAS Features in Driver Assessment/Testing Programs
    • 2.17 Impact of ADAS in Driver Testing Programs
    • 2.18 Summary of Findings – Literature Review and Web Search
  • 3. Stakeholder Consultation
    • 3.1 Method
    • 3.2 Derivation of Questions for Stakeholder Consultations
    • 3.3 Identification of Stakeholder Groups
    • 3.4 Consultation Process
      • 3.4.1 Interviews
      • 3.4.2 Web survey
    • 3.5 Analysis of Consultation Data
    • 3.6 Summary of Key Responses and Issues
    • 3.7 Provision of Educational and Training Information and Materials
      • 3.7.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
      • 3.7.2 Industry (all)
      • 3.7.3 Industry (FCAI & OEMs)
    • 3.8 Provision of Formal Education and Training
      • 3.8.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
      • 3.8.2 Industry (all)
    • 3.9 Provision of Information for Buyers/Users of Used Vehicles
      • 3.9.1 Industry (all)
      • 3.9.2 Industry (FCAI & OEMs)
    • 3.10 Extent to Which ADAS are Equipped or Retrofitted to Vehicles
      • 3.10.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
      • 3.10.2 Industry (all)
    • 3.11 Customer Preferences for Obtaining Information
      • 3.11.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
      • 3.11.2 Industry (all)
      • 3.11.3 Industry (FCAI & OEMs)
    • 3.12 Research to Understand Drivers’ Knowledge of ADAS/ADFs
      • 3.12.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
      • 3.12.2 Industry (all)
      • 3.12.3 Industry (FCAI & OEMs)
    • 3.13 Future Role in Education and Training of Drivers
      • 3.13.1 Government (NHVR)
      • 3.13.2 Industry (all)
      • 3.13.3 Industry (FCAI & OEMs)
    • 3.14 Stakeholder Roles in Providing Education and Training to End Users
      • 3.14.1 Industry (all)
    • 3.15 Role of R&L Agencies in Providing Driver Education and Training
      • 3.15.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
      • 3.15.2 Industry (all)
      • 3.15.3 Industry (FCAI & OEMs)
    • 3.16 Organisational Policy in Relation to Allowing ADAS During the Practical Driving Test
      • 3.16.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
    • 3.17 Changes to Current Driver Education and Licence Testing Requirements
      • 3.17.1 Government (R&L; NHVR)
    • 3.18 Proper Control of Automated Driving Systems
      • 3.18.1 Government (NTC)
    • 3.19 Safety Assurance System for Automated Driving Systems
      • 3.19.1 Government (NTC)
    • 3.20 Summary of Findings
  • 4. Training Needs Analysis
    • 4.1 Background
    • 4.2 Aim
    • 4.3 Method
      • 4.3.1 Definition of terms
    • 4.4 Performance Needs Analysis
      • 4.4.1 ADAS/ADF and the Australian and New Zealand driving context
      • 4.4.2 Task analysis
      • 4.4.3 Target population analysis
      • 4.4.4 Performance gaps and learning needs
    • 4.5 Learning and Assessment Options Analysis
      • 4.5.1 Potential learning and assessment strategies
      • 4.5.2 Options analysis
      • 4.5.3 Options evaluation
    • 4.6 Recommended Learning and Assessment Strategy
      • 4.6.1 Description
      • 4.6.2 Implementation issues
  • 5. Discussion and Conclusions
    • 5.1 Literature Review and Web Search
    • 5.2 Stakeholder Consultation
      • 5.2.1 The current landscape
      • 5.2.2 Potential roles of R&L agencies
    • 5.3 Training Needs Analysis
    • 5.4 Assessment of Key Issues
    • 5.5 General Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendix A Project Research Tasks
    • A.1 Summary of all research tasks as part of this project
  • Appendix B Summary of Known Current Information Sources about ADAS Functions and Operations
    • B.1 Summary of known current information sources about ADAS functions and operations
  • Appendix C Educational Practice Around ADAS and ADFs
    • C.1 Educational practice around ADAS and ADFs
  • Appendix D Education and Training for the Use of ADAS and ADFs From Registration and Licensing Authorities
    • D.1 Education and training for the use of ADAS and ADFs from registration and licensing authorities (for
    • light vehicles only)
    • D.2 Education and training for the use of ADAS and ADFs gleaned from registration and licensing authorities (for heavy vehicles only)
  • Appendix E Task Analysis
    • E.1 Generic ADAS/ADF driver tasks
    • E.2 ADAS/ADF-specific driver tasks
  • Appendix F Risk Matrix
    • F.1 Risk level assessment matrix
    • F.2 Likelihood ratings
    • F.3 Consequence ratings
  • Appendix G Stakeholder Consultation Agenda and Research Questions
    • G.1 Consultation agenda with National Transport Commission (15 February 2019)
    • G.2 Consultation agenda with industry stakeholders (1 March 2019)
    • G.3 Consultation agenda with Registration and Licensing Agencies (6 March 2019)
    • G.4 Consultation agenda with FCAI/OEMs (20 March 2019)
    • G.5 Consultation agenda with New Zealand Transport Agency (9 April 2019)
    • G.6 Consultation agenda with National Heavy Vehicle Regulator (10 April 2019)