Connected and automated vehicles

Cover of Infrastructure Changes to Support Automated Vehicles on Rural and Metropolitan Highways and Freeways: Asset Standards (Module 3)
Infrastructure Changes to Support Automated Vehicles on Rural and Metropolitan Highways and Freeways: Asset Standards (Module 3)
  • Publication no: AP-R604-19
  • ISBN: 978-1-925854-45-9
  • Published: 8 October 2019

This report investigates road asset standards relevant to connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on metropolitan and rural highways and freeways in Australia and New Zealand. It builds on previous work by Austroads and other national and international agencies, which considered whether automated vehicles could read existing line marking and road signs. It also includes interviews with representatives from Australian road agencies.

The report finds the main reason road agencies have not developed asset standards is lack of clear guidance, with cost a secondary consideration. As a result, the report provides some initial guidance on thresholds for line marking width and reflectivity, and sign maintenance, that will benefit both human drivers and CAVs.

  • Summary
  • 1.      Introduction
    • 1.1    Which roads?
    • 1.2    Which automated vehicles?
    • 1.3    Which asset types?
    • 1.4    Asset quality standards are in scope, but not asset design
  • 2.      Method for Assessment
    • 2.1    Interviews with assets standards stakeholders
    • 2.2    Gap assessment between standards and needs
    • 2.3    Which standards are included in the gap assessment?
      • 2.3.1      Australian and New Zealand standards
    • 2.3.2      Austroads Guides
    • 2.3.3      Supplements to standards or guides
    • 2.3.4      Standard specifications
    • 2.3.5      Project specific specifications
  • 3.      What Changes to Standards Have Occurred?
    • 3.1    Line marking
      • 3.1.1      Austroads Road Authority Pavement Markings Group
      • 3.1.2      Main Roads Western Australia
      • 3.1.3      Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads
      • 3.1.4      Private road operators
    • 3.2    Signs
    • 3.3    Other changes
    • 3.4    Identified barriers to change
    • 3.5    How much might changes cost?
  • 4.      What do Automated Vehicles Require?
    • 4.1    Line marking
      • 4.1.1      Line quality
      • 4.1.2      Line availability or coverage
      • 4.1.3      Line patterns
    • 4.2    Signs
  • 5.      Gap Assessment
    • 5.1    Line marking standards and intervention levels
      • 5.1.1      Line widths
      • 5.1.2      Provision of edge lines
      • 5.1.3      Line contrast to background
      • 5.1.4      Line retro-reflectivity in dry and wet conditions
    • 5.2    Sign quality and maintenance
      • 5.2.1      Visual quality of new signs
      • 5.2.2      Sign maintenance intervention levels
      • 5.2.3      Electronic signs and flicker
      • 5.2.4      Use of parallel methods to assist interpretation of signs
    • 5.3    Lower volume and more remote roads
  • 6.      Recommendations
    • 6.1    Recommendations for line marking
      • 6.1.1      Line widths
      • 6.1.2      Provision of edge lines
      • 6.1.3      Adoption of a line contrast performance indicator
      • 6.1.4      Assessment of retro-reflectivity to include wet conditions
      • 6.1.5      Improved maintenance of line quality
    • 6.2    Recommendations for road signs
      • 6.2.1      Complete updates to electronic sign standards for LED flicker
      • 6.2.2      Update sign maintenance interventions to include machine vision impacts
      • 6.2.3      Continue activities that assist complementary interpretation of signs
    • 6.3    General recommendations
      • 6.3.1      Closing gaps: better roads, smarter vehicles or both?
      • 6.3.2      Summarised recommendation for updated infrastructure standards
      • 6.3.3      Investment will be required, but less clear how much
  • References
  • Appendix A          Survey Questionnaire
  • Appendix B          Line Marking – Rationale for Adopted Threshold Values