Road safety

Cover of Point-to-Point Speed Enforcement
Point-to-Point Speed Enforcement
  • Publication no: AP-R415-12
  • ISBN: 978-1-921991-42-4
  • Published: 19 September 2012

This report reviews the use of point-to-point speed enforcement internationally in order to provide principles for better practice for its use in Australia and New Zealand. Point-to-point enforcement is a relatively new technological approach to speed enforcement which involves measuring the average speed of vehicles passing a series of cameras, by using automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) and other technologies. The approach has been implemented or trialled in a number of countries including Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Italy, Switzerland and France. The major research activities were undertaken for the preparation of this report included: an extensive review of the international literature; and stakeholder consultation with international and domestic organisations.

To date, there have been no formal evaluations of point-to-point speed enforcement in Australia or New Zealand.

  • ABBREVIATIONS
  • GLOSSARY
  • SUMMARY
  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1. Structure of the report
    • 1.2. Contributing role of speed to road trauma
  • 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVES & METHODOLOGY
    • 2.1. Literature review
    • 2.2. Stakeholder consultations
      • 2.2.1. Data collection
      • 2.2.2. Interview schedule/questionnaire
      • 2.2.3. Data analysis
    • 2.3. Working group
  • 3. EFFECTS OF POINT-TO-POINT SPEED ENFORCEMENT
    • 3.1. Effects on vehicle speed
    • 3.2. Crash fatality and injury reduction
    • 3.3. Traffic flow improvement
    • 3.4. Impact on traffic emissions and noise
    • 3.5. Driver perceptions and self-reported behaviour
    • 3.6. Costs and benefits of point-to-point enforcement
    • 3.7. Comparison of effects between point-to-point and other types of enforcement
  • 4. TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW
    • 4.1. Cameras/Illumination
      • 4.1.1. Number of cameras and camera sites
      • 4.1.2. Rearward-facing cameras, forward-facing cameras or both
      • 4.1.3. Resolution, colour and type of camera equipment
      • 4.1.4. Illumination
      • 4.1.5. Camera activation system
    • 4.2. Infrastructure
      • 4.2.1. Camera housing
      • 4.2.2. Mounting
      • 4.2.3. Cabling
      • 4.2.4. Time clocks
      • 4.2.5. Power source
    • 4.3. Processors and servers
    • 4.4. ANPR/OCR engine and software
      • 4.4.1. Accuracy
    • 4.5. Communications network
    • 4.6. Back office/Central processing unit
    • 4.7. Legislative and policy issues
      • 4.7.1. Potential legislative and ethical barriers to point-to-point implementation
  • 5. FINDINGS FROM THE STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS
    • 5.1. Australia & New Zealand stakeholder consultations
      • 5.1.1. Victoria
      • 5.1.2. Queensland
      • 5.1.3. New South Wales
      • 5.1.4. South Australia
      • 5.1.5. Australian Capital Territory
      • 5.1.6. Western Australia
      • 5.1.7. Tasmania
      • 5.1.8. Northern Territory
      • 5.1.9. New Zealand
    • 5.2. Additional findings from the working group conducted with stakeholders from Australia and New Zealand
      • 5.2.1. Enforcing average speeds across non-discrete speed zones
      • 5.2.2. Enforcement tolerances
      • 5.2.3. Legislative and evidentiary considerations
      • 5.2.4. Mobile point-to-point speed enforcement
      • 5.2.5. Shortest practicable distance
      • 5.2.6. Environmental/noise reduction benefits
      • 5.2.7. Clock synchronisation
      • 5.2.8. Other technological aspects
      • 5.2.9. Automation of the back office operations
      • 5.2.10. Between-jurisdiction sharing of information
      • 5.2.11. Number plate manufacturing and readability
      • 5.2.12. Evaluating point-to-point speed enforcement systems
      • 5.2.13. Consultations with Australian Motoring Groups and Additional Organisations
      • 5.2.14. England
      • 5.2.15. Scotland & Northern Ireland
      • 5.2.16. The Netherlands
      • 5.2.17. Austria
      • 5.2.18. Italy
      • 5.2.19. Switzerland
      • 5.2.20. Belgium
      • 5.2.21. Finland
      • 5.2.22. France
      • 5.2.23. Other countries
    • 5.3. International stakeholder consultations
  • 6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BETTER PRACTICE
    • 6.1. Operational recommendations
    • 6.2. Technological recommendations
    • 6.3. Legislative and evidentiary recommendations
    • 6.4. Public education recommendations
    • 6.5. Evaluation recommendations
    • 6.6. Privacy recommendations
    • 6.7. Additional suggestions
    • 6.8. Implications of findings for the Austroads Guide to Road Safety
  • REFERENCES
  • Appendix A. LIST OF SEARCH TERMS USED AND DATABASES SEARCHED
  • Appendix B. INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
  • Appendix C. ADDITIONAL STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION FINDINGS