Road safety

Cover of Review of the School Bus Safety Action Plan: Final Report
Review of the School Bus Safety Action Plan: Final Report
  • Publication no: AP-R207-02
  • ISBN: 0 85588 628 5
  • Published: 30 August 2002
At the request of the Australian Transport Council, ARRB Transport Research was commissioned by Austroads in 1999 to undertake a review of school bus safety in Australia. This study reviewed current practice and research in relation to school bus safety and identified new or proven safety measures that may be used as part of a national approach to school bus safety. The key outcome of the study was the development of a draft National School Bus Safety Action Plan, which sought to provide a set of short, medium and long term measures designed to reduce the incidence and severity of crashes involving school children that were associated with bus travel. The current study reviewed the draft National School Bus Safety Action Plan based on an assessment of updated crash analyses, research findings and initiatives in place across Australian jurisdictions. The crash analysis confirmed the findings of the original report and highlighted that children are at greatest risk of injury or death when attempting to cross the road after alighting the bus. The study reported on initiatives being implemented by jurisdictions to improve the safety of school bus travel. Further, the study included a review of actions in the Action Plan with the aim of identifying succinct, measurable actions that address those areas most likely to yield safety benefits. A system for prioritising these actions, based on the extent to which they address key contributing crash factors, their effectiveness, resource needs and ease of implementation, was developed. Based on this ranking system, the current report presents a Revised Action Plan which aims to assist jurisdictions to give priority to those measures which address the most common cause of fatalities where the greatest gains can be made in school bus safety for children.
  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1. Background
    • 1.2. Purpose
  • 2. METHOD
  • 2.1.1. . Analysis of Crash Data
  • 2.1.2. . Review of Relevant Literature
  • 2.1.3. . Review of current practices across Australian jurisdictions
  • 2.1.4. . Revision of the School Bus Safety Action Plan
  • 3. ANALYSIS OF CRASH DATA
    • 3.1. Original crash analysis
      • 3.1.1. . Background
      • 3.1.2. . Key findings
    • 3.2. Updated crash analysis
      • 3.2.1. . Background
      • 3.2.2. . Summary of changes
    • 3.3. Results of updated crash analysis
      • 3.3.1. . Child pedestrian crashes during school commuting hours
      • 3.3.2. . Crashes involving child bus passengers
      • 3.3.3. . Characterisation of fatal crashes involving school children and buses
    • 3.4. Summary
  • 4. REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
    • 4.1. Background
    • 4.2. Crash risk and severity
      • 4.2.1. . School bus related injuries in Australia
    • 4.3. Occupants in transit
      • 4.3.1. . Protection via compartmentalisation
      • 4.3.2. . Assessing the crashworthiness of school buses
      • 4.3.3. . Current occupant restraint systems and standards
    • 4.4. Community concerns and countermeasures
      • 4.4.1. . Safety as an occupant
      • 4.4.2. . Safety as road user after boarding or alighting the bus
    • 4.5. Overseas Practices in School Bus Safety
      • 4.5.1. . United States of America
      • 4.5.2. . Canada
      • 4.5.3. . New Zealand
      • 4.5.4. . Europe
    • 4.6. Summary
      • 4.6.1. . Crash risk and severity
      • 4.6.2. . Occupants in transit
      • 4.6.3. . Community concerns and potential countermeasures
      • 4.6.4. . Overseas practices
  • 5. REVISION OF THE SCHOOL BUS SAFETY ACTION PLAN
    • 5.1. Background
    • 5.2. Current Practice of school bus safety actions
      • 5.2.1. . Risks associated with travel by school bus
      • 5.2.2. . Countermeasures to the risks
      • 5.2.3. . Implementation of countermeasures by each State and Territory
    • 5.3. Review of March 2001 Action Plan
      • 5.3.1. . Review Process
      • 5.3.2. . Action items already completed
      • 5.3.3. . Combining or separating actions items
      • 5.3.4. . Additional action item
    • 5.4. Revised Action Plan
      • 5.4.1. . Priority A: Addresses most common cause of fatalities
      • 5.4.2. . Priority B: May address potential cause of fatalities
      • 5.4.3. . Action items with an ‘N/A’ priority rating.
  • 6. SUMMARY
    • 6.1. Analysis of Crash Data
    • 6.2. Review of Relevant Literature
    • 6.3. Review of Current Practice in Australia
    • 6.4. Reviewing the School Bus Safety Action Plan
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX A — DATA TABLES
  • APPENDIX B – CONTACT DETAILS
  • APPENDIX C — MARCH 2001 NATIONAL SCHOOL BUS SAFETY ACTION PLAN