Asset management

Cover of Appropriate Use of Marginal and Non-standard Materials in Road Construction and Maintenance
Appropriate Use of Marginal and Non-standard Materials in Road Construction and Maintenance
  • Publication no: AP-T335-18
  • ISBN: 978-1-925671-63-6
  • Published: 27 June 2018

This report considers the use of marginal and non-standard materials in road construction and maintenance. It concludes that considerable evidence exists, both nationally and internationally, that supports the wider use of marginal and non-standard road pavement materials in sealed roads. It also identifies evidence from studies of unsealed roads which demonstrate the effective selection of unsealed road wearing course materials, and the benefits of good-quality construction and maintenance practices.

The report provides the basis for the use of marginal and non-standard materials in sealed roads and considers the factors affecting performance. It includes national and international case studies which provide supporting evidence of the successful use of marginal materials.

Increased focus on the quality of design, materials testing, and construction is seen as a pre-requisite to optimise the use of marginal and non-standard materials. The project findings support the wider use of preliminary materials assessment techniques and the report proposes a materials assessment protocol for low volume roads.

Each section of the report provides summarised take-home messages for asset managers to aid the application of the report’s findings in different circumstances.

  • Summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Background
    • 1.2 Purpose and Scope
    • 1.3 Tasks and Deliverables
    • 1.4 Structure and Content of the Report
  • 2. Definition and Basis for the Use of Marginal and Non-standard Materials in Sealed Roads
    • 2.1 Definition
    • 2.2 Historical Basis for the Use of Naturally-occurring Materials
      • 2.2.1 Australian National and State-based Studies
      • 2.2.2 International Studies
    • 2.3 Discussion on Adoption within Current Practice and Recent Initiatives
      • 2.3.1 Current Practice and Challenges
      • 2.3.2 Availability of Evidence-based Specifications and Guidelines
    • 2.4 Potential Cost Savings
    • 2.5 Recent Initiatives in Australia
      • 2.5.1 NACoE Project P34, ‘Performance-based Evaluation Protocol for Non-standard Granular Pavement Materials’
      • 2.5.2 Austroads Project TT1819, ‘Improved Laboratory Characterisation of the Deformation Properties of Granular Materials’
      • 2.5.3 Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA) Studies
      • 2.5.4 Additional Work
      • 2.5.5 Unsealed Roads
    • 2.6 Definition and Basis for the Use of Marginal and Non-standard Materials – Take-home Messages for Asset Managers
  • 3. Factors Influencing the Performance of Marginal and Non-standard Materials in Sealed Roads
    • 3.1 Overview
    • 3.2 Traffic
    • 3.3 Environmental Factors
    • 3.4 Construction Materials
      • 3.4.1 Particle Size Distribution (PSD)
      • 3.4.2 Particle Shape, Strength and Durability
      • 3.4.3 Consistency Limits and Volumetric Stability
      • 3.4.4 Design, Construction and Maintenance
      • 3.4.5 Pavement Layers
      • 3.4.6 Drainage
      • 3.4.7 Construction and Maintenance
    • 3.5 Factors Affecting Performance in Sealed Roads – Take-home Messages for Asset Managers
  • 4. Case Studies of the Use of Marginal and Non-standard Materials in Sealed Roads
    • 4.1 General
    • 4.2 Basis for Classifying and Reviewing Materials Properties
    • 4.3 Compilation and Analysis of ‘Green Book’ Database
    • 4.4 Australian Case Studies
      • 4.4.1 Western Australia
      • 4.4.2 Central and Western Queensland
    • 4.5 Other International Sources
      • 4.5.1 Southern Africa
      • 4.5.2 Asia and Oceania
      • 4.5.3 North America
      • 4.5.4 Central and South America
    • 4.6 Accounting for Risk – A New Perspective
    • 4.7 Opportunities from Case Studies of Sealed Roads – Take-home Messages for Asset Managers
  • 5. Classification, Deterioration and Maintenance of Unsealed Roads
    • 5.1 General
    • 5.2 Classification and Deterioration of Unsealed Roads
      • 5.2.1 Classification
      • 5.2.2 Deterioration Mechanisms
    • 5.3 Life-cycle Performance and Maintenance Effects
    • 5.4 Combined Effects of Surface Materials, Construction Quality and Maintenance
    • 5.5 Damaging Effect of Traffic on Unsealed Roads
    • 5.6 Australian Case Studies
      • 5.6.1 Earlier Unsealed Road Deterioration Studies
      • 5.6.2 Recent Unsealed Road Maintenance Studies in Australia
    • 5.7 Unsealed Roads – Take-home Messages for Asset Managers
  • 6. Preliminary Materials Assessment Techniques
    • 6.1 General
    • 6.2 Guidelines and Techniques
      • 6.2.1 Scope
      • 6.2.2 Basic Requirements
      • 6.2.3 Available Methods
    • 6.3 Proposed Basis for a Preliminary Materials Assessment Protocol for Low Volume Sealed Roads
      • 6.3.1 General
      • 6.3.2 Proposed Asset Planning Oriented Preliminary Materials Assessment Regime for Sealed Roads
    • 6.4 Preliminary Materials Assessment Techniques – Take-home Messages for Asset Managers
  • 7. Conclusions and Suggestions
    • 7.1 Conclusions
    • 7.2 Suggestions
  • References
  • Appendix A Examples of The Use of Non-Standard Materials In Low Volume Sealed Roads From TRL and Other International Studies
  • Appendix B Example of Proposed Asset Planning Oriented Preliminary Materials Assessment Regime for Sealed Roads