Traffic management

Cover of Revision of Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice Part 8: Traffic Control Devices
Revision of Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice Part 8: Traffic Control Devices
  • Publication no: AP-T47-06
  • ISBN: 1 921139 43 9
  • Published: 17 August 2006

Austroads works towards uniformity of practice in respect of design, construction and user aspects of roads and bridges and with this purpose in view, publishes guides and procedures.

Traffic Engineering Practice, first published in 1965, is a practical guide to traffic engineering for highway and transport engineers in Road Authorities, Local Government, and engineering consultants, and as a reference for engineering students.

  • FOREWORD
  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1. Definition of traffic control devices
    • 1.2. Function
    • 1.3. Uniformity
      • 1.3.1. Importance
      • 1.3.2. Areas of desirable uniformity
    • 1.4. Factors affecting performance
      • 1.4.1. Inappropriate use
      • 1.4.2. Lack of maintenance
      • 1.4.3. Environmental factors
      • 1.4.4. Site conditions
      • 1.4.5. Traffic factors
      • 1.4.6. Inadequate design of the road or facility
      • 1.4.7. Redundant signs
    • 1.5. Signing and marking principles
      • 1.5.1. General principles
      • 1.5.2. Considerations for aged road users and people with disabilities
    • 1.6. Australian/New Zealand Standards
    • 1.7. Road rules
  • 2. SIGNING AND MARKING SCHEMES
    • 2.1. General
    • 2.2. Need for signs and marking schemes
    • 2.3. Principles for preparation of schemes
    • 2.4. Complex and closely spaced intersections
    • 2.5. Traffic management plans
    • 2.6. Route plans for direction signs
      • 2.6.1. General
      • 2.6.2. Route overview plans
      • 2.6.3. Intersection direction sign layouts
      • 2.6.4. Reassurance direction signs plan
    • 2.7. Route audits
    • 2.8. Road safety audits
    • 2.9. Schemes for parking signs on roads
    • 2.10. Signs and markings for local area traffic management
  • 3. TRAFFIC SIGNS
    • 3.1. General
    • 3.2. Development of new signs
    • 3.3. Types of signs
      • 3.3.1. Regulatory signs
      • 3.3.2. Warning signs
      • 3.3.3. Guide signs
      • 3.3.4. Signs for roadworks and temporary situations
    • 3.4. Design of sign faces
      • 3.4.1. General
      • 3.4.2. Numbering of signs
      • 3.4.3. Colour of signs
      • 3.4.4. Standard signs (pre-set graphics)
      • 3.4.5. ‘Made to measure’ signs
      • 3.4.6. Letter types and spacing
      • 3.4.7. Letter size and legibility
      • 3.4.8. Arrows and symbols
    • 3.5. Sign materials and illumination
      • 3.5.1. General
      • 3.5.2. Retro-reflective materials
      • 3.5.3. Illumination
    • 3.6. Location and placement of signs
      • 3.6.1. General
      • 3.6.2. Longitudinal placement
      • 3.6.3. Lateral placement and height
      • 3.6.4. Road layout, environment and topography
      • 3.6.5. Orientation of signs
    • 3.7. Maintenance
      • 3.7.1. General
      • 3.7.2. Performance degradation
      • 3.7.3. Inspection
      • 3.7.4. Routine maintenance
      • 3.7.5. Repair of damaged signs
  • 4. ELECTRONIC SIGNS
    • 4.1. Variable message signs
      • 4.1.1. General
      • 4.1.2. Variable message sign technology
      • 4.1.3. General principles
      • 4.1.4. VMS sign face characteristics
      • 4.1.5. Legibility of VMS
      • 4.1.6. Designing messages
      • 4.1.7. Message content and format
      • 4.1.8. Location and spacings of signs, supports and gantries
    • 4.2. Applications of variable message signs
      • 4.2.1. General
      • 4.2.2. Driver information signs
      • 4.2.3. Variable speed limit signs
      • 4.2.4. Lane control signals/signs
      • 4.2.5. Weather warning systems
      • 4.2.6. Reversible lanes
      • 4.2.7. Incident management
      • 4.2.8. Over height system
      • 4.2.9. Speed advisory system
      • 4.2.10. Intersection and road geometry signs
      • 4.2.11. Public transport
      • 4.2.12. Parking guidance
    • 4.3. Portable VMS signs
  • 5. SIGN POSTS AND STRUCTURES
    • 5.1. General
    • 5.2. Frangible posts
      • 5.2.1. General
      • 5.2.2. Small supports
      • 5.2.3. Large supports
    • 5.3. Use of existing infrastructure
    • 5.4. Review of Australasian and international practice
    • 5.5. Installation and maintenance issues for frangible supports
    • 5.6. Frangible post selection guidelines
    • 5.7. Supports for overhead signs
  • 6. PAVEMENT MARKINGS
    • 6.1. General
      • 6.1.1. Use of markings
      • 6.1.2. Limitations of markings
    • 6.2. Road rules
    • 6.3. Colour and reflectorisation
      • 6.3.1. Colour
      • 6.3.2. Reflectorisation
    • 6.4. Linemarking materials
    • 6.5. Longitudinal markings
      • 6.5.1. Types of longitudinal lines
      • 6.5.2. Separation lines
      • 6.5.3. Barrier lines
      • 6.5.4. Lane lines
      • 6.5.5. Transition lines
      • 6.5.6. Continuity lines
      • 6.5.7. Edge lines
      • 6.5.8. Special lane lines
    • 6.6. Transverse lines
      • 6.6.1. Stop lines
      • 6.6.2. Holding lines
      • 6.6.3. Pedestrian crossing markings
    • 6.7. Other markings
      • 6.7.1. Turn lines
      • 6.7.2. Diagonal and chevron markings
      • 6.7.3. Off-road path markings
      • 6.7.4. Yellow box markings at rail crossings
      • 6.7.5. Messages on pavements
      • 6.7.6. Roundabout markings
      • 6.7.7. Kerb markings
    • 6.8. Use of coloured pavements
    • 6.9. Raised pavement markers
      • 6.9.1. Types
      • 6.9.2. Raised Retroreflective markers (RRPMs)
      • 6.9.3. Non-reflective raised markers (NRPM)
      • 6.9.4. Warrants for use
      • 6.9.5. Illuminated and other pavement markers
    • 6.10. Rumble strips
      • 6.10.1. General
      • 6.10.2. Types
      • 6.10.3. Recommended rumble strips
      • 6.10.4. Adverse effects
      • 6.10.5. Guidelines for use
      • 6.10.6. Intersection approaches
      • 6.10.7. Fatigue zones
      • 6.10.8. Low speed curves in local streets
    • 6.11. Tactile ground surface indicators (TGSIs)
  • 7. GUIDE POSTS AND DELINEATORS
    • 7.1. General
    • 7.2. Design of guide posts
    • 7.3. Location and spacing of guide posts
    • 7.4. Delineators
    • 7.5. Snow poles
  • 8. TRAFFIC SIGNALS
  • 9. TRAFFIC ISLANDS
    • 9.1. General
    • 9.2. Flush medians and islands with a painted or contrasting surface
    • 9.3. Flush islands with safety bars
    • 9.4. Moveable medians, islands and barriers
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX A ROUTE INVENTORY PROCEDURE
  • APPENDIX B STANDARD ALPHABET (5X7 MATRIX)
  • APPENDIX C VMS SYMBOLS
  • APPENDIX D ABBREVIATIONS FOR USE ON VMS
  • APPENDIX E VMS MESSAGE STATEMENTS
  • APPENDIX F GENERIC MESSAGE SET
  • APPENDIX G EXAMPLES OF POST SELECTION CHARTS