Traffic management

Cover of Development of Guide Content on Managed Motorways
Development of Guide Content on Managed Motorways
  • Publication no: AP-R464-14
  • ISBN: 978-1-925037-71-5
  • Published: 19 June 2014

This report formulates content for the Austroads Guides on managed motorways. The majority of the content has been adopted from the VicRoads Managed Freeways: Freeway Ramp Signals Handbook (2010 and updated version 2013) and the VicRoads Managed Freeway Guidelines (2012). Additional content has come from supplementary guides provided by Queensland Transport and Main Roads and Main Roads Western Australia and other literature on managed motorways.

Ramp metering is the main focus of this report as ramp metering plays a significant role in controlling the operational characteristics of a managed motorway. Detailed content on other aspects of managed motorways is expected to be compiled in future Austroads projects.

The inclusion of guidance on managed motorways in the Austroads Guides should provide a definitive source of standardised information for managed motorways that will be accessible to all jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand.

Updating the Austroads Guides was outside the scope of this project but the report suggests how the content can be linked to the Austroads Guides and provides a strategy for further development of managed motorways information in future Austroads projects.

  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Background
    • 1.2. Content of this Report
  • 2. Managed Motorway Overview
    • 2.1. Context within an Integrated Road Network Management System
    • 2.2. Operational Objectives
    • 2.3. Elements of a Managed Motorway
      • 2.3.1. Intelligence
      • 2.3.2. Control
      • 2.3.3. Traveller Information
      • 2.3.4. Hierarchy of Control
    • 2.4. Foundation Systems and Infrastructure
      • 2.4.1. Control System
      • 2.4.2. Communications System
      • 2.4.3. Power System
      • 2.4.4. Traffic Management Centre
    • 2.5. Warrants for ITS Intervention
    • 2.6. Planning and Design of Managed Motorway Systems
  • 3. Principles of Motorway Flow
    • 3.1. Traffic Flow Breakdown
    • 3.2. Probability of Flow Breakdown
      • 3.2.1. Causes of Traffic Flow Breakdown
      • 3.2.2. Effects of Flow Breakdown
      • 3.2.3. Recovery from Flow Breakdown
    • 3.3. Motorway Operational Capacity
      • 3.3.1. Capacity of Segment
      • 3.3.2. Capacity at Motorway Entry Ramp Merges
    • 3.4. Merge Capacity for a Managed Motorway with Ramp Signals
      • 3.4.1. Operational Capacity Values for Motorway Design
      • 3.4.2. Root Causes of Flow Breakdown and Appropriate Treatments
  • 4. Traffic Data Collection for Managed Motorways
    • 4.1. Real-time Traffic Data
    • 4.2. Historic Traffic Data
    • 4.3. Types of Data Collection
      • 4.3.1. Intrusive
      • 4.3.2. Non-intrusive
      • 4.3.3. Choice of Technology for Traffic Data Collection
    • 4.4. Queue Detection on the Entry Ramp
    • 4.5. Motorway Data Stations
      • 4.5.1. Data Station Locations
      • 4.5.2. Summary of Traffic Data Collected by Sensor Equipment
  • 5. Elements of Coordinated Ramp Metering
    • 5.1. Principles of Ramp Metering
      • 5.1.1. Fundamental Principles in Ramp Metering
      • 5.1.2. The Principal Aims of Ramp Metering
      • 5.1.3. Benefits of Ramp Metering
    • 5.2. Ramp Signal Control
      • 5.2.1. Optimising Control Logic
      • 5.2.2. Levels of Control
      • 5.2.3. Local Control
      • 5.2.4. Coordinated (Route-based) Control
      • 5.2.5. Fixed-time Operation
      • 5.2.6. Dynamic Operation
      • 5.2.7. Managing Ramp Demands
      • 5.2.8. Managing Heavy Congestion and Incidents
    • 5.3. Criteria for Provision of Ramp Signals
      • 5.3.1. Ramp Metering Warrants
      • 5.3.2. Existing Motorways
      • 5.3.3. New Motorways
    • 5.4. Motorway-to-motorway Ramps
      • 5.4.1. Designing for Future Retrofitting of Ramp Signals
    • 5.5. Ramp Layout and Traffic Management Device Installations
      • 5.5.1. Capacity Analysis and Storage Design
      • 5.5.2. Design Plan: Geometry and Devices
      • 5.5.3. Priority Access Lanes
      • 5.5.4. Traffic Management Devices
    • 5.6. Operation of Ramp Signals
      • 5.6.1. Control Philosophies and Algorithms
      • 5.6.2. Times of Operation
      • 5.6.3. Start-up and Close-down Control Sequences
      • 5.6.4. Signal and Cycle Times
      • 5.6.5. Ramp Signal Integration with other Managed Motorway Operations
  • 6. Managed Motorways and the Austroads Guides
    • 6.1. Incorporating Managed Motorways and Ramp Metering into the Austroads Guides
    • 6.2. Managed Motorways Concepts and Principles
  • 7. Strategy for Further Development of Managed Motorways Guide Content
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix A Abbreviations and Notations
  • Appendix B Level of Service (LOS)
  • Appendix C Existing Ramp Metering Content in the Austroads Guides
  • C.1 Ramp Metering Content in the Austroads Guide to Road Design
  • C.2 Ramp Metering Content in the Austroads Guide to Traffic Management
  • Appendix D Managed Motorway Learnings and Recommendations
  • Appendix E National Managed Motorways Prioritisation Report