Table of Contents

3.9 Enforcement

Enforcement activities and systems associated with traffic operations are for the most part aimed at improving road safety. However, the effectiveness of a number of non-safety related traffic operations measures (bus and other priority lanes, HOV lanes, clearways, ramp metering, ETC, congestion charging) is often dependent on effective enforcement measures. While this is not usually a road agency function, it is a critical element affecting the success of some traffic operations. From a credibility point of view it is important that such enforcement be seen as supporting traffic operations and not merely being used for revenue-raising.

The main enforcement activities and systems associated with traffic operations in Australia and New Zealand are listed in Table 3.10.

Table 3.10: Enforcement – summary

Enforcement activityObjectivesMethodRequirementsOutcomesConsiderations
Speed cameraTo automatically detect offences and consequently deter them.

Speed detectors and cameras, either fixed or mobile:

  • may be deployed as part of a freeway/motorway management system
  • may operate on a point‑to‑point basis.

Accuracy:

  • outputs that can be substantiated in court.

Reduce crashes.

Improved compliance may assist smoother freeway/motorway flow and marginal capacity increase.

Public support and credibility requires location selection in accordance with accepted criteria.

Coordination between parties, especially with enforcing agency.

Privacy issues.

Red light cameraTo enforce compliance with traffic signals.

Detectors and cameras at traffic signals and ramp meters:

  • may be combined with fixed speed cameras.

Accuracy:

  • outputs that can be substantiated in court.
Reduce crashes.

Coordination between parties, especially with enforcing agency.

Privacy issues.

Bus lane cameraTo support the effectiveness of bus lane operation by deterring non‑bus users.

Detectors:

  • may be loop-based providing bus profile recognition
  • may be video-based vehicle recognition or number plate recognition.

Accuracy:

  • outputs that can be substantiated in court.

Ensures facility is available for intended purpose.

More efficient bus operation.

Careful location to maximise length over which deterrence is effective.

Privacy issues.

HOV lane enforcement (including T2 and T3 transit lanes)To support the effectiveness of HOV lane operation by deterring non‑eligible users.

Manual:

  • at the time of writing no automated method of detecting vehicle occupancy with sufficient accuracy exists
  • developments in automatic enforcement have trialled tools that count the number of occupants in a vehicle through the use of infrared technology or require HOV lane users to equip vehicles with toll tag transponders (Lobo 2005, Wikander & Goodin 2006)
  • to date, technological challenges and other issues have limited automated technologies from supplementing or replacing manual enforcement.

Suitable road space to allow enforcement activities without impeding operation of the HOV lane.

Dedicated enforcement bays may be required.

Ensures facility is available for intended purpose.Availability or feasibility of providing areas for enforcement activities.
ParkingTo support effective operation of clearways and HOV lanes.

Manual:

  • parking fines
  • tow-away schemes.

Appropriate arrangements to administer fines and towing fees.

Systems and procedures to support owners’ recovery of towed vehicles.

Ensures facility is available for intended purpose.

Maximum available capacity of arterial roads.

Effective surveillance to facilitate detection of vehicles parked on clearways or HOV lanes.