Traffic management

Table of Contents

Commentary 1

This commentary presents the LOS framework defined as part of Austroads project NT1788 (Austroads 2015c). The LOS framework allows users to make an assessment of various LOS measures of five road users (private motorist, transit users, pedestrians, cyclists and freight operators) and across five needs (mobility, safety, access, information and amenity).

The LOS assessment is undertaken for the scenario of without the proposed works and then a hypothetical assessment of the scenario with the proposed works. The user uses the LOS framework to determine which of the six LOS levels is assigned for each measure for both scenarios. Completion of the LOS framework allows the user to understand the LOS measurements of various measures and then to understand the LOS trade-offs of either scenario.

While the LOS framework follows a step-function approach of six LOS levels the framework permits the use of sub-levels in between LOS levels (e.g. LOS B+ or LOS B++, in practice).

The LOS framework utilises objective and subjective measures as follows:

  • Objective measures (e.g. 50 to 67% of free flow operating speed) were utilised where suitable information is readily available in existing LOS frameworks. Objective measures (e.g. possibility for a maximum of 25% increase in travel time) were also established in cases where the panel of reviewers suggested and agreed to specific estimates.
  • Subjective measures (e.g. good wheelchair access and meets Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) requirements) were used in cases where no suitable objective measure can be determined or agreed upon by the panel of reviewers. In network operation planning, the LOS assessment is reviewed and agreed by planners and stakeholders. The reasons and justifications of subjective LOS assessments are documented and well-understood by the planners and the stakeholders.

The LOS framework is outlined in Table C1 1.

Table C1 1: LOS framework and worksheet for network operation planning

Road userLOS needsLOS measureRatingService measure values

Private motorists

Mobility

CongestionA
  • For motorways a condition of free-flow in which drivers are virtually unaffected by the presence of others in the traffic stream. Freedom to select desired speeds and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream is extremely high, and the general level of comfort and convenience provided is excellent(1).
  • For arterial roads generally free flow conditions with operating speeds at least 80% of the free flow speed. Vehicles are unimpeded in manoeuvring in the traffic stream and delay at intersections is minimal.
B
  • For motorways a condition of stable flow where drivers still have reasonable freedom to select their desired speed and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. The general level of comfort and convenience is a little less than with level of service A(1).
  • For arterial roads relatively unimpeded flow with operating speeds between 50–80% of the free flow speed. Manoeuvring in the traffic stream is only slightly restricted and intersection delays are low.
C
  • For motorways a condition of stable flow, but where most drivers are restricted to some extent in their freedom to select their desired speed and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. The general level of comfort and convenience declines noticeably at this level(1).
  • For arterial roads stable operating conditions but with manoeuvring becoming more restricted and motorists experiencing appreciable tension in driving. Operating speeds are between 30–50% of the free flow speed. At signalised intersections, vehicles generally have to stop in a queue but clear the intersection in one signal cycle.
D
  • For motorways a condition that is close to the limit of stable flow and approaching unstable flow. All drivers are severely restricted in their freedom to select their desired speed and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. The general level of comfort and convenience is poor, and small increases in traffic flow will generally cause operational problems(1).
  • For arterial roads small increases in traffic volumes can significantly increase delay. Operating speeds are between 20–30% of the free flow speed. At signalised intersections, vehicles always join the back of an existing queue and take about two signal cycles to clear the intersection.
E
  • For motorways a condition where traffic volumes are at or close to capacity, and there is virtually no freedom to select desired speeds or to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. Flow is unstable and minor disturbances within the traffic stream will cause breakdown(1).
  • For arterial roads conditions are characterised by significant delays with operating speeds between 10–20% of the free flow speed. At signalised intersections, vehicles take three or more signal cycles to clear the intersection(1).
F
  • For motorways a condition of forced flow, where the amount of traffic approaching the point under consideration exceeds that which can pass it. Flow breakdown occurs, and queuing and delays result(1).
  • For arterial roads traffic flow at this level is at very low speeds (less than 10% of the free flow speed). At signalised intersections, vehicles can take three or more signal cycles to clear the intersection and backups from downstream significantly impact traffic flow.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Travel time reliabilityA
  • Travel time is nearly always the same.
B
  • Travel may possibly encounter unexpected delays but there is no need to adjust expected travel time for time sensitive journeys.
C
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum of 25% increase in travel time.
D
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum of 50% increase in travel time.
E
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum of 75% increase in travel time.
F
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a greater than 75% increase in travel time.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Travel speedA
  • High travel speeds of over 80 km/h.
B
  • Medium to high travel speeds of 70 to 80 km/h.
C
  • Medium travel speeds of 60 to 70 km/h.
D
  • Low to medium travel speeds of 50 to 60 km/h.
E
  • Low speeds of 40 to 50 km/h.
F
  • Very low speeds of less than 40 km/h.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Safety

Crash risk

A
  • Roads that have the following:
    • road design appropriate for the intended and actual road use and speed environment
    • minimal instances of conflict. Conflict refers to times where vehicles can potentially collide with another vehicle, pedestrian or cyclist. Conflicts can be mitigated, for example, by grade separation, divided roads, separating movements, controlling movements through signalisation or restricting direct access. There are also low instances of conflict in low congestion conditions
    • forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment (i.e. in case of a crash or potential crash there is limited risk or there is sufficient protection against serious injury or death).
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS A are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS A are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
B
  • Roads that have the following:
    • minimal to some instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • minimal instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate crash risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • generally forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment but there are minor factors that may cause serious injury or death in case of a crash.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS B are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS B are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
C
  • Roads that have the following:
    • some to frequent instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • some instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • generally forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment but there are some factors that may cause serious injury or death in case of a crash.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS C are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS C are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
D
  • Roads that have the following:
    • frequent instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • some to frequent instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • unforgiving road environment relative to the speed environment with frequent roadside hazards.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS D are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS D are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
E–F
  • Roads that have the following:
  • frequent instances of conflicts and poor visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
  • unforgiving road environment relative to the speed environment with frequent and severe roadside hazards.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS E-F are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS E-F are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Access

Ability to park close to destination (on-road or off-road)A
  • For the majority, parking is readily available within close walking distance to key destinations on the road.
B
  • For the majority, parking is readily available within some walking distance to key destinations on the road.
C
  • For the majority, parking is available within some walking distance to key destinations on the road but may require some queuing, waiting or looking for an available parking slot.
D
  • For the majority, restricted parking is available within some walking distance to key destinations on the road or may require substantial queuing, waiting or looking for an available parking slot.
E
  • For the majority, free parking is not available but reasonably priced paid parking is available within some walking distance to key destinations on the road.
F
  • For the majority, free parking is not available and expensive paid parking is available within some walking distance to key destinations on the road or may require substantial queuing, waiting or looking for an available parking slot.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Ability to access near‑road land or ability to access departures at an intersectionA–B
  • Partial to full access at mid-blocks and access to all departures at an intersection.
C–D
  • Limited to partial access at mid-blocks and access to some minor street departures restricted at an intersection.
E–F
  • No access at mid-blocks (e.g. freeway with long distances between ramps) and access to some major departures restricted at an intersection.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
InformationTraveller information availableA–B
  • Real-time traveller information (with respect to road works, traveller information and travel time) is available.
  • Adequate and suitable directional, regulatory and traffic information signage is available for the road environment.
C–D
  • No real traveller information (with respect to road works, traveller information and travel time) is available.
  • Adequate and suitable directional, regulatory and traffic information signage is available for the road environment.
E–F
  • Signage is inadequate or missing (e.g. some or many directional, regulatory or traffic information signage are missing or in poor condition).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Amenity

AestheticsA–B
  • Clean and aesthetically pleasing (e.g. greenery, view, etc.).
C–D
  • Clean.
E–F
  • Unclean (graffiti, garbage, etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Driving stressA–B
  • Low stress road environment (e.g. average 3.3 to 3.5 m lane widths, signalised intersections where vehicles exiting a link can rely on the signals to stop opposing traffic, vehicles do not need to manoeuvre across a path used by other road users as manoeuvres are fully controlled or separated, no obstruction, e.g. right-turning vehicles blocking through movement, to desired movement).
C–D
  • Medium stress road environment (e.g. average 3 to 3.3 m lane widths, non‑signalised intersections where vehicles exiting a link may have some difficulty picking a gap, vehicles need to manoeuvre across a path lightly used by other road users such as performing a filtered right turn across a path lightly used by cyclists and/or pedestrians, some obstructions to desired movement and obstructions are relatively easy to go around).
E–F
  • High stress road environment (e.g. narrow < 3.0 m lane widths, non‑signalised intersections where vehicles exiting a link may find it hard to find a gap, vehicles need to manoeuvre across a path heavily used by other road users such as performing a filtered right turn across a path heavily used by cyclists and/or pedestrians, frequent obstructions that are difficult to go around).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Pavement ride quality

A–B
  • Smooth ride.
C–D
  • Road defects noticeable only at high speeds.
E–F
  • Road defects or poor pavement conditions noticeable at low speeds.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Transit users

MobilityService schedule reliabilityA
  • Headway < 10 min.
  • Transit vehicle travel time is nearly always the same where headway schedule is > 10 min.
B
  • Transit vehicle may possibly encounter unexpected delays but generally users would not need to adjust expected travel time where headway schedule is > 10 min.
C
  • Transit vehicle is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum 25% increase in travel time where headway schedule is > 10 min.
D
  • Transit vehicle is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum 50% increase in travel time where headway schedule is > 10 min.
E
  • Transit vehicle is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum 75% increase in travel time where headway schedule is > 10 min.
F
  • Transit vehicle is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a greater than 75% increase in travel time where headway schedule is > 10 min.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Operating speedA
  • Exclusive right of way with infrequent stops.
B
  • Exclusive right of way with frequent stops.
C
  • Non-exclusive right of way on a moderately congested road with infrequent stops.
D
  • Non-exclusive right of way on a moderately congested road with frequent stops.
E
  • Non-exclusive right of way on a congested road with infrequent stops.
F
  • Non-exclusive right of way on a congested road with frequent stops.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Safety

Crash risk of transit vehicle

A
  • Roads that have the following:
    • road design appropriate for the intended and actual road use and speed environment
    • minimal instances of conflict. Conflict refers to times where vehicles can potentially collide with another vehicle, pedestrian or cyclist. Conflicts can be mitigated, for example, by grade separation, divided roads, separating movements, controlling movements through signalisation or restricting direct access. There are also low instances of conflict in low congestion conditions
    • forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment (i.e. in case of a crash or potential crash there is limited risk or there is sufficient protection against serious injury or death).
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS A are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS A are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
B
  • Roads that have the following:
    • minimal to some instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • minimal instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate crash risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • generally forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment but there are minor factors that may cause serious injury or death in case of a crash.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS B are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS B are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
C
  • Roads that have the following:
    • some to frequent instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • some instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • generally forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment but there are some factors that may cause serious injury or death in case of a crash.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS C are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS C are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
D
  • Roads that have the following:
    • frequent instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • some to frequent instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • unforgiving road environment relative to the speed environment with frequent roadside hazards.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS D are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS D are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
E–F
  • Roads that have the following:
    • frequent instances of conflicts and poor visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • unforgiving road environment relative to the speed environment with frequent and severe roadside hazards.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS E-F are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS E-F are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Crash risk of transit users while accessing/
egressing

A
  • Fully protected to access both sides of the road where the station/stop is located (e.g. located at a signalised pedestrian crossing).
B
  • Fully protected to access one side of the road where the station is located and with protected pedestrian crossing facilities nearby.
C–D
  • Fully protected to access one side of the road where the station is located and with no protected pedestrian crossing facilities located nearby; but, there are low-to-medium speeds and traffic volumes on the road (such as a residential street).
E–F
  • Fully protected to access one side of the road where the station is located but with no protected pedestrian crossing facilities nearby; and, there are high speeds and high traffic volumes on the road (such as a primary arterial road).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AccessService availability (urban services only)A
  • 10 min headway.
B
  • 10 to 15 min headway.
C
  • 15 to 25 min headway.
D
  • 25 to 40 minute headway.
E
  • 40 to 60 minute headway.
F
  • > 60 minute headway.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Level of disability accessA–C
  • Good wheelchair access and meets DDA requirements.
D–F
  • Poor wheelchair access and does not meet DDA requirements.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Access to transit user stops/stations from key origins and destinationsA
  • Stop or station located at the key origin or destination.
B
  • Stop or station located within 200 m of the key origin or destination.
C
  • Stop or station located between 200 m and 400 m of the key origin or destination.
D
  • Stop or station located between 400 m and 600 m of the key origin or destination.
E
  • Stop or station located between 600 m and 800 m of the key origin or destination.
F
  • Stop or station located in excess of 800 m of the key origin or destination.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
InformationTraveller information availableA–B
  • On-board and roadside traveller information including reliable real-time traveller information, in addition to information on timetable, fare, directions and maps.
C–D
  • On-board and roadside traveller information, in addition to information on timetable, fare, directions and maps; but no real-time traveller information.
E–F
  • Limited, incomplete or missing traveller information on the roadside and no on-board traveller information on the transit vehicle.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Amenity

Pedestrian environment
(also refer to pedestrian LOS)
A–B
  • Good to very good pedestrian environment (e.g. sealed path, well lit, good drainage).
C–D
  • Fair to good pedestrian environment (e.g. sealed path but with some defects or unsealed but well maintained, fair to good lighting, fair to good drainage).
E–F
  • Poor pedestrian environment (e.g. sealed path but with significant defects or unsealed and poorly maintained, poor drainage and poor lighting).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
On-board congestionA–B
  • Transit vehicle not crowded.
C–D
  • Transit vehicle moderately crowded.
E–F
  • Transit vehicle crowded.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Seat availabilityA–B
  • Easy to find and select a seat on the transit vehicle.
C–D
  • Only a few seats available on the transit vehicle.
E–F
  • Difficult to obtain a seat.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
SecurityA–C
  • Good to high level of security (well-lighted, security personnel presence, security cameras, no or limited history of criminality or disturbance, sufficient number of transit users, etc.).
D–F
  • Poor to fair level of security.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Comfort and convenience featuresA–B
  • Good comfort and convenience features (e.g. a shelter and seat with additional amenities such as a toilet, noise protection, food/newspaper stalls, cycle facilities, park-and-ride, etc.).
C–D
  • Adequate comfort and convenience features (e.g. includes a shelter and seat).
E–F
  • Poor to fair comfort and convenience features (e.g. sign only and no shelter and seat).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AestheticsA
  • Clean and aesthetically pleasing (e.g. greenery, view, design, artwork, etc.).
B–C
  • Clean.
D–F
  • Unclean (graffiti, garbage, etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Ride qualityA–B
  • Smooth ride.
C–D
  • Road defects noticeable only at high speeds.
E–F
  • Road defects or poor pavement conditions noticeable at low speeds.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Pedestrians

MobilityFootpath congestionA
  • Ability to move in desired path, no need to alter movements
    (e.g. > 5.6 m2 per pedestrian etc.).
B
  • Occasional need to adjust path to avoid conflicts (e.g. 3.7–5.7 m2 per pedestrian etc.).
C
  • Frequent need to adjust path to avoid conflicts (e.g. 2.2–3.7 m2 per pedestrian etc.).
D
  • Speed and ability to pass slower pedestrians restricted
    (e.g. 1.4–2.2 m2 per pedestrian etc.).
E
  • Speed restricted, very limited ability to pass slower pedestrians
    (e.g. 0.75–1.4 m2 per pedestrian etc.).
F
  • Speed severely restricted, frequent contact with other users
    (e.g. < 0.75 m2 per pedestrian etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Grade of pathA–B
  • Flat grades.
C–D
  • Flat to steep grades.
E–F
  • Steep grades, including long stretches of stairs.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Crossing delay or detourA
  • On average no or little delay and/or detour required to cross where there is demand to cross – refer to Austroads (2015c).
B
  • On average minor delay and/or detour required to cross where there is a demand to cross – refer to Austroads (2015c).
C
  • On average minor to medium delay and/or detour required to cross where there is a demand to cross – refer to Austroads (2015c).
D
  • On average medium to major delay and/or detour required to cross where there is a demand to cross – refer to Austroads (2015c).
E
  • On average major delay and/or detour required to cross where there is a demand to cross – refer to Austroads (2015c).
F
  • On average significant delay and/or detour required to cross where there is a demand to cross – refer to Austroads (2015c).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Safety

Exposure to vehicles at mid‑blocks

A
  • No or limited exposure to vehicles.
  • Separate path from bicycles (i.e. not a shared path with bicycles) where located on a principal bicycle network or shared path away from the principal bicycle network.
  • Clear separation (in excess of clear zone requirement for the speed environment) between motor vehicles and pedestrians.
  • None or limited driveway access along the mid-block.
B
  • Clear separation between pedestrians and motor vehicles with a buffer between pedestrians and vehicles such as a nature strip and/or bicycle lane. However the separation is less than the clear zone requirement for the speed environment.
  • Separate path from bicycles (i.e. not a shared path with bicycles) where located on a principal bicycle network or shared path away from the principal bicycle network.
C
  • Clear separation between pedestrians and motor vehicles, however separation is less than the clear zone requirement for the speed environment.
D
  • No separation between pedestrians and motor vehicles within a low volume and low speed motor vehicle environment (e.g. a typical minor residential street).
E
  • No separation between pedestrians and motor vehicles within a low to medium volume and low speed motor vehicle environment (e.g. a typical collector/sub-arterial road).
F
  • No separation between pedestrians and motor vehicles within a medium to high volume and medium to high speed motor vehicle environment (e.g. a primary arterial road).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Exposure to vehicles at crossingsA
  • Fully protected crossings (e.g. pedestrian operated signalised crossings, signalised intersection with fully controlled right turns or signalised intersections with filtered right turns but with low pedestrian numbers).
  • Regulated crossings (e.g. zebra and pelican crossings) in a low volume and low speed motor vehicle environment such as a residential street).
B
  • Uncontrolled crossing in a low volume and low speed motor vehicle environment such as a residential street.
  • Regulated crossings (e.g. zebra and pelican crossings) in a low to medium volume and low to medium speed motor vehicle environment such as a typical collector or sub-arterial road.
C
  • Uncontrolled crossing in a low to medium volume and low to medium speed motor vehicle environment such as a typical collector or sub-arterial road.
  • Regulated crossing (e.g. zebra and pelican crossings) in a medium volume and medium speed motor vehicle environment such as a minor arterial road.
  • No crossing facility at a major crossing point in a low volume, low speed, and one lane each way motor vehicle environment (e.g. strip shopping centre in a residential street).
D
  • Uncontrolled crossing in a medium to high volume and medium speed motor vehicle environment (e.g. arterial road).
  • No crossing facility at a major crossing point in a medium volume, medium speed, in a two lane each way motor vehicle environment (e.g. strip shopping centre on a minor arterial road).
  • Signalised intersection with high vehicle volumes and high pedestrian volumes located on the through movement which a filtered right turn crosses.
E
  • Uncontrolled crossing in a high volume and high speed motor vehicle environment (e.g. major high speed arterial road).
  • Inappropriate crossing treatment on a medium to high volume and medium to high speed motor vehicle environment (e.g. zebra crossing on an arterial road).
F
  • No crossing facility at a major crossing point in a high volume and high speed multi-lane motor vehicle environment (e.g. strip shopping centre on a major high speed arterial road).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Trip hazards

A–B
  • Well-maintained pavement with good drainage and clear of debris.
  • Kerb ramps provided.
  • Tactile indicators for stairs and hazards.
  • No or limited pavement defects, trip hazards or other miscellaneous hazards that may impact on safety (e.g. clear of street furniture (signage, poles, seats, bins), trees, garbage, parked cars, etc.).
C–D
  • Paved with good drainage with minor defects.
  • Some debris on path.
  • Tactile indicators not provided.
  • Occasional pavement defects, trip hazards or other miscellaneous hazards that may impact on safety (e.g. street furniture (signage, poles, seats, bins), trees, garbage, parked cars etc.).
E–F
  • Footpath that is unpaved, or paved with significant defects such as tree roots, potholes and very uneven surfaces.
  • Significant debris on path.
  • Poor drainage.
  • Frequent or high density of pavement defects, trip hazards, or stationary hazards obstructing the footpath (e.g. street furniture (signage, poles, seats, bins), trees, garbage, parked cars).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AccessCrossing opportunitiesA
  • Ability to safely cross the road within 25 m from an origin anywhere along the road (e.g. low speed shopping strip or shared zone where people can safely and freely cross at any location along the road).
B
  • Ability to safely cross the road within 50 m from an origin anywhere along the road.
C
  • Ability to safely cross the road within 100 m from an origin anywhere along the road.
D
  • Ability to safely cross the road within 200 m from an origin anywhere along the road (e.g. medium speed, medium volume sub-arterial road where pedestrians may need to walk 200 m in order to avoid a physical obstruction such as a fence in order to cross the road).
E
  • Ability to safely cross the road within 400 m from an origin anywhere along the road.
F
  • Ability to safely cross the road requires a detour of more than 400 m from an origin anywhere along the road (e.g. high speed, high volume arterial road where pedestrians may need to walk in excess of 400 m to a signal in order to cross the road, or to be able to avoid obstructions preventing a pedestrian from crossing such as a fence or barrier in the median).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Level of disability accessA–C
  • Good wheelchair access and meets DDA requirements.
D–F
  • Poor wheelchair access and does not meet DDA requirements.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
InformationTraveller information available including signpostingA–C
  • Adequate and suitable traveller information is fully available (with consideration to the nature of pedestrians and the area, e.g. a tourist area would require more information than a local neighbourhood).
  • Complete and clear signposting with routes and distances.
D–F
  • Traveller information is incomplete, inadequate or missing.
  • Limited or non-existent route signposting.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AmenityFootpath pavement conditionsA–B
  • Sealed with good drainage, and comfortable to walk on (e.g. smooth).
C–D
  • Sealed with fair to good drainage, and slightly uncomfortable to walk on (e.g. some small bumps or undulations).
  • Unsealed but well maintained.
E–F
  • Sealed with significant defects, drainage problems and uncomfortable to walk on (e.g. significant bumps and undulations such as tree roots, potholes).
  • Unsealed and poorly maintained.
  • Significant debris on path.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Comfort and convenience featuresA–C
  • Good comfort and convenience features (shelter, noise protection, benches, food/newspaper stalls, etc.).
D–F
  • Poor to fair comfort and convenience features.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
SecurityA–C
  • Good to high level of security (well-lighted, security personnel presence, security cameras, no or limited history of criminality or disturbance, sufficient number of pedestrians, etc.).
D–F
  • Poor to fair level of security.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AestheticsA–B
  • Clean and aesthetically pleasing (e.g. greenery, view, design, artwork, etc.).
C–D
  • Clean.
E–F
  • Unclean (graffiti, garbage, etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Cyclists

Mobility

Travel speedA–B
  • High quality, high priority links which permit quick, unhindered travel by bicycle.
  • Typical cyclist operating speeds are largely unconstrained (e.g. can travel at speeds greater than 25 km/h).
  • No or minimal delay at intersections (e.g. grade separated crossing or at-grade crossing of minor local road).
C–D
  • High quality routes with seamless connections that permit somewhat unhindered travel by bicycle.
  • Typical cyclist operating speeds are somewhat constrained (e.g. cyclist limited to a speed range from 20 to 25 km/h).
  • Some delay at intersections (e.g. at-grade crossing of collector road or minor arterial; short signal phase at signalised intersections or cyclists rarely made to wait a full cycle based on arrival).
E–F
  • Low speed, shared environment which permits only hindered travel by bicycle.
  • Typical cyclist operating speeds are constrained (e.g. cyclist speed less than 20 km/h.
  • Significant delay at intersection (e.g. at-grade crossing of busy arterial road and therefore gap times are long; cyclists likely to wait a full cycle based on arrival).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
CongestionA–B
  • Cyclists are unimpeded or only slightly restricted to choose their speed.
C–D
  • Cyclists are somewhat impeded in their choice of speed.
E–F
  • Cyclists are restricted and their choice of speed is dictated by others.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
GradesA–B
  • Flat grades (e.g. 0 to 2%).
C–D
  • Flat to steep grades (e.g. 2 to 5%).
E–F
  • Steep grades; steps or stairs (e.g. > 5% sustained for 50 to 100 m).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Safety

Risk of
cycle-to-cycle/ pedestrian crash
A–B
  • No to limited risk.
  • Good line of sight.
  • Speed differential low (e.g. similar cyclist type such as all recreational cyclists).
C–D
  • Medium risk, some platooning of cyclists and cyclists slowing down for pedestrians.
  • Good to fair line of sight.
  • Speed differential medium (e.g. some mixture in cyclist type such as predominantly recreational cyclists with some commuter cyclists).
E–F
  • High risk, crashes can result in several upstream cyclists to brake abruptly or crash.
  • Poor line of sight (e.g. blind curves).
  • Speed differential high (e.g. mixture in cyclist type such as recreational cyclists combined with family cyclists, commuter cyclists and training cyclists).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Risk of crash caused by surface unevenness or slippageA–B
  • Sealed pavement that is well-maintained with good drainage.
C–D
  • Sealed pavement with good drainage but with some defects.
  • Some debris on path.
E–F
  • Unsealed pavement or sealed pavement with significant defects.
  • Significant debris on path.
  • Poor drainage.
  • Significant slippery pavement materials (e.g. tram rails or road markings).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Risk of crash with stationary hazards

A–B
  • No or limited stationary hazards on the path and adjacent to the path (e.g. clear of street furniture (poles, seats, bins), trees, garbage, parked cars etc.).
C–D
  • Occasional or a low density of stationary hazards on the path or adjacent to the path (e.g. parked cars that are frequently accessed such as in strip shopping centres, street furniture (poles, seats, bins), trees, garbage, etc.).
  • Occasional parked cars or cars coming off parking that can block or hinder the natural path of cyclists.
E–F
  • Frequent or a high density of stationary hazards on the path or adjacent to the path (e.g. parked cars that are frequently accessed such as in strip shopping centres, street furniture (poles, seats, bins), trees, garbage, etc.).
  • Frequent parked cars or cars coming off parking that can block or hinder the natural path of cyclists.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Risk of cycle-to-motor vehicle crash at mid‑blocksA
  • Exclusive bicycle facility in a low risk road environment – refer to Austroads (2015c).
B
  • Exclusive bicycle facility in a low to medium risk road environment or no bicycle facility in a low risk road environment – refer to Austroads (2015c).
C
  • Exclusive bicycle facility in a medium to high risk road environment or no bicycle facility in a low to medium risk road environment – refer to Austroads (2015c).
D
  • Exclusive bicycle facility in a medium to high risk road environment or no bicycle facility in a medium risk road environment – refer to Austroads (2015c).
E
  • Bicycle-only lane (not Copenhagen style facility where the bicycle facility is behind a kerb) in a high risk road environment or no bicycle facility in a medium to high risk road environment – refer to Austroads (2015c).
F
  • No bicycle facility in a high risk road environment – refer to Austroads (2015c).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Risk of cycle-to-motor vehicle crash at intersections and/or drivewaysA
  • No crossings of motor vehicles or fully separated crossings (including no or limited driveways).
  • Fully controlled crossings of motor vehicles at low to medium volume roads, without concurrent movements (e.g. exclusive bicycle movement).
B
  • Crossings limited to driveway crossing only.
C
  • Uncontrolled motor vehicle crossings at low volume, low speed roads (e.g. give way or roundabout residential street intersection).
  • Fully controlled crossings of motor vehicles at high volume roads, without concurrent movements (e.g. exclusive bicycle movement).
  • Signalised intersection with high volumes, large numbers of cyclists on the through movement but fully controlled right turns.
D
  • Uncontrolled motor vehicle crossing at medium volume, medium speed roads (e.g. give way or roundabout collector, sub-arterial road intersection).
  • Fully controlled crossings of motor vehicles at medium volume roads, with concurrent movements (e.g. no exclusive bicycle movement).
  • Signalised intersection with high volumes, large numbers of cyclists on the through movement and filtered right turns.
E
  • Uncontrolled motor vehicle crossing at medium to high volume roads (e.g. non-signalised arterial road intersection).
F
  • Uncontrolled vehicles at high volume, high speed intersecting roads (e.g. major high speed arterial road roundabout).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AccessAccess to and ability to park close to destinationA
  • Proper bicycle parking facilities are readily available immediately adjacent to key destinations and can be accessed directly from the bicycle network. Parking is suitable for likely trip purpose (racks for occasional or short-term users, secure cages/lockers for regular or long-term users).
B
  • Proper bicycle parking facilities are readily available within close walking distance to key destinations and can be accessed directly from the bicycle network. Parking is suitable for likely trip purpose.
C
  • Proper bicycle parking facilities are readily available within a moderate walking distance to key destinations and can be accessed directly from the bicycle network.
D
  • Proper bicycle parking facilities are somewhat available within a moderate walking distance to key destinations, or parking at or near a location is a moderate walking distance from the bicycle network.
E
  • Proper bicycle parking facilities are somewhat available within a long walking distance to key destinations, or parking at or near a location is a long walking distance from the bicycle network.
F
  • Proper bicycle parking facilities are not available.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
SuitabilityA
  • Cycling highly suitable as follows:
    • off-road facility for use by bicycles only (e.g. off-road bicycle only path).
B
  • Cycling suitable as follows:
    • off-road shared-use path with low pedestrian numbers
    • on-road bicycle lane separated from car parking or road shoulder with no car parking on a low-volume road
    • on-road shared-traffic environment marked on a low-speed or low-volume road.
C
  • Cycling moderately suitable as follows:
    • off-road shared-use path with medium pedestrian numbers
    • on-road bicycle lane shared with minimal car parking or road shoulder with minimal car parking on a low-volume road
    • on-road shared-traffic environment on a medium-volume road or low speed road.
D
  • Cycling moderately unsuitable as follows:
    • off-road shared-use path/zone with high pedestrian numbers or speed restrictions (e.g. 10 km/h)
    • on-road bicycle lane or road shoulder on high-volume road
    • on-road shared-traffic environment on a medium to high volume or medium to high speed road.
E
  • Cycling unsuitable as follows:
    • cycling significantly impeded due to physical obstructions that require getting off the bike (e.g. steps)
    • cycling is unsuitable due to inadequate separation from traffic that is either high speed or high volume.
F
  • Cycling highly unsuitable or prohibited
  • cycling prohibited
  • cycling is unsuitable due to inadequate separation from traffic that is both high speed and high volume.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
InformationTraveller information available, including signpostingA–B
  • Complete and clear signposting with routes and distances is fully available (with consideration to the nature of cyclists and the area, e.g. a tourist area would require more information than a local neighbourhood).
C–D
  • Signposting with routes and distances is partially available.
E–F
  • Signposting with routes and distances is inadequate or missing.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AmenityAestheticsA–B
  • Clean and aesthetically pleasing (e.g. greenery, view, design, artwork, etc.).
C–D
  • Clean.
E–F
  • Unclean (graffiti, garbage, etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Comfort and convenience featuresA–C
  • Good comfort and convenience features (bike parking, noise protection, change facilities, lockers, etc.).
D–F
  • Poor to fair comfort and convenience features (no parking, excessive noise, no change facilities, no lockers, etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
SecurityA–C
  • Good to high level security (e.g. well-lighted, no or limited history of criminality or disturbance, sufficient number of cyclists, etc.).
D–F
  • Poor to fair level security (e.g. not well-lighted, with history of criminality or disturbance, low number of cyclists, etc.).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Pavement ride qualityA–B
  • Road surface is smooth and even.
C–D
  • Road surface is moderately smooth and even.
E–F
  • Road surface is not smooth and even.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Freight operators

Mobility

Congestion

A
  • For motorways a condition of free-flow in which drivers are virtually unaffected by the presence of others in the traffic stream. Freedom to select desired speeds and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream is extremely high, and the general level of comfort and convenience provided is excellent(2).
  • For arterial roads generally free flow conditions with operating speeds at least 80% of the free flow speed. Vehicles are unimpeded in manoeuvring in the traffic stream and delay at intersections is minimal.
B
  • For motorways a condition of stable flow where drivers still have reasonable freedom to select their desired speed and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. The general level of comfort and convenience is a little less than with level of service A(2).
  • For arterial roads relatively unimpeded flow with operating speeds between 50–80% of the free flow speed. Manoeuvring in the traffic stream is only slightly restricted and intersection delays are low.
C
  • For motorways a condition of stable flow, but where most drivers are restricted to some extent in their freedom to select their desired speed and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. The general level of comfort and convenience declines noticeably at this level(2).
  • For arterial roads stable operating conditions but with manoeuvring becoming more restricted and motorists experiencing appreciable tension in driving. Operating speeds are between 30–50% of the free flow speed. At signalised intersections, vehicles generally have to stop in a queue but clear the intersection in one signal cycle.
D
  • For motorways a condition that is close to the limit of stable flow and approaching unstable flow. All drivers are severely restricted in their freedom to select their desired speed and to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. The general level of comfort and convenience is poor, and small increases in traffic flow will generally cause operational problems(2).
  • For arterial roads small increases in traffic volumes can significantly increase delay. Operating speeds are between 20–30% of the free flow speed. At signalised intersections, vehicles always join the back of an existing queue and take about two signal cycles to clear the intersection.
E
  • For motorways a condition where traffic volumes are at or close to capacity, and there is virtually no freedom to select desired speeds or to manoeuvre within the traffic stream. Flow is unstable and minor disturbances within the traffic stream will cause breakdown(2).
  • For arterial roads conditions are characterised by significant delays with operating speeds between 10–20% of the free flow speed. At signalised intersections, vehicles take three or more signal cycles to clear the intersection(1).
F
  • For motorways a condition of forced flow, where the amount of traffic approaching the point under consideration exceeds that which can pass it. Flow breakdown occurs, and queuing and delays result(2).
  • For arterial roads traffic flow at this level is at very low speeds (less than 10% of the free flow speed). At signalised intersections, vehicles can take three or more signal cycles to clear the intersection and backups from downstream significantly impact traffic flow.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
Travel time reliabilityA
  • Travel time is nearly always the same.
B
  • Travel may possibly encounter unexpected delays but there is no need to adjust expected travel time for time sensitive journeys.
C
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum 25% increase in travel time.
D
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum 50% increase in travel time.
E
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a maximum 75% increase in travel time.
F
  • Travel is likely to encounter unexpected delays and there is a possibility for a greater than 75% increase in travel time.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Travel speed

A
  • High travel speeds of over 80 km/h.
B
  • Medium to high travel speeds of 70 to 80 km/h.
C
  • Medium travel speeds of 60 to 70 km/h.
D
  • Low to medium travel speeds of 50 to 60 km/h.
E
  • Low speeds of 40 to 50 km/h.
F
  • Very low speeds of less than 40 km/h.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Safety

Crash risk

A
  • Roads that have the following:
    • road design appropriate for the intended and actual road use and speed environment
    • minimal instances of conflict. Conflict refers to times where vehicles can potentially collide with another vehicle, pedestrian or cyclist. Conflicts can be mitigated, for example, by grade separation, divided roads, separating movements, controlling movements through signalisation or restricting direct access. There are also low instances of conflict in low congestion conditions
    • forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment (i.e. in case of a crash or potential crash there is limited risk or there is sufficient protection against serious injury or death).
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS A are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS A are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
B
  • Roads that have the following:
    • minimal to some instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • minimal instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate crash risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • generally forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment but there are minor factors that may cause serious injury or death in case of a crash.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS B are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS B are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
C
  • Roads that have the following:
    • some to frequent instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • some instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • generally forgiving road environment relative to the speed environment but there are some factors that may cause serious injury or death in case of a crash.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS C are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS C are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
D
  • Roads that have the following:
    • frequent instances of conflict but there is good visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • some to frequent instances of conflict and there is poor visibility, however measures are in place to mitigate risks due to poor visibility (such as a low speed limit)
    • unforgiving road environment relative to the speed environment with frequent roadside hazards.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS D are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS D are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
E–F
  • Roads that have the following:
    • frequent instances of conflicts and poor visibility/sight distance (including potential visual obstruction caused by other vehicles)
    • unforgiving road environment relative to the speed environment with frequent and severe roadside hazards.
  • Examples of rural road features that could achieve a LOS E-F are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
  • Examples of the combination of intersection features that could achieve a LOS E-F are outlined in Austroads (2015c).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
AccessLevel of freight accessA
  • Road permitting A-triple ≤ 53.5 m freight vehicles (e.g. Level 4 access road according to the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator Performance-Based Standards (PBS) scheme).
B
  • Road permitting A-double ≤ 36.5 m freight vehicles (e.g. Level 3 access according to PBS).
C
  • Road permitting B-double ≤ 26 m freight vehicles (e.g. Level 2 access according to PBS).
D
  • Road permitting rigid ≤ 20 m freight vehicles (e.g. Level 1 access according to PBS).
E–F
  • No freight vehicles allowed or highly regulated access only.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
InformationTraveller informationA–B
  • Real-time traveller information is available.
  • Good signage.
C–D
  • Adequate signage.
E–F
  • Signage is inadequate or missing.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Amenity

Pavement ride qualityA–B
  • Smooth ride.
C–D
  • Road defects noticeable only at high speeds.
E–F
  • Road defects or poor pavement conditions noticeable at low speeds.
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.

Stress

A–B
  • Low stress road environment (e.g. average 3.3 to 3.5 m lane widths, signalised intersections where vehicles exiting a link can rely on the signals to stop opposing traffic, vehicles do not need to manoeuvre across a path used by other road users as manoeuvres are fully controlled or separated).
C–D
  • Medium stress road environment (e.g. average 3 to 3.3 m lane widths, non‑signalised intersections where vehicles exiting a link may have some difficulty picking a gap, vehicles need to manoeuvre across a path lightly used by other road users such as performing a filtered right turn across a path lightly used by cyclists and/or pedestrians).
E–F
  • High stress road environment (e.g. narrow < 3.0 m lane widths, non‑signalised intersections where vehicles exiting a link may find it hard to find a gap, vehicles need to manoeuvre across a path heavily used by other road users such as performing a filtered right turn across a path heavily used by cyclists and/or pedestrians).
N/A
  • N/A – The measure is not applicable to the site and the proposal being assessed.
  1. Note some road agencies may choose to elect a percentage of posted speed for motorways to assist in establishing a LOS for private motorists – mobility – congestion measure. For example VicRoads utilises the following percentages to reflect LOS: LOS A = > 80%, LOS B = 70–80%, LOS C = 60–70%, LOS D = 50–60%, LOS E = 40–50% and LOS F = < 40%.
  2. Note some road agencies may choose to elect a percentage of posted speed for motorways to assist in establishing a LOS for freight operators – mobility – congestion measure. For example VicRoads utilises the following percentages to reflect LOS: LOS A = > 80%, LOS B = 70–80%, LOS C = 60–70%, LOS D = 50–60%, LOS E = 40–50% and LOS F = < 40%.

Source: Austroads (2015c).

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