Road safety

Cover of Road Surface Characteristics and Crash Occurrence: A Literature Review
Road Surface Characteristics and Crash Occurrence: A Literature Review
  • Publication no: AP-T96-08
  • ISBN: 978-1-921329-55-5
  • Published: 16 May 2008

The starting point for this review was the recently-published Austroads Guidelines for the Management of Road Surface Skid Resistance. Skid resistance, which depends on both microtexture and macrotexture, is currently the road surface characteristic which has the best-established relationship to crash risk. Macrotexture, rutting and roughness are currently collected as part of general condition surveys and may contribute to crash risk. Evidence on the relationship between different surface characteristics is reviewed. The relative contribution of microtexture and macrotexture to pavement friction is complex and varies according to speed. The relationship of different road surface characteristics to crash occurrence are considered. The relationship between crash occurrence and skid resistance is well established. The few studies that have been conducted also suggest a strong relationship between macrotexture and crash occurrence. What little information is available suggests there may be relationships between of rutting and roughness and crash occurrence. Other issues examined include the effects of wet conditions, resurfacing, and the provision of high skid-resistance pavements. The paper concludes with a discussion focussing on gaps in current knowledge.

  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1. Background
    • 1.2. Aims
    • 1.3. Starting Point – Review of ‘Guidelines for the Management of Road Surface Skid Resistance’
  • 2. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS
    • 2.1. Skid Resistance
      • 2.1.1. Methods
      • 2.1.2. Correlation among Measures
    • 2.2. Microtexture
    • 2.3. Macrotexture
    • 2.4. Rutting
    • 2.5. Roughness
  • 3. RELATION BETWEEN SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS
    • 3.1. Macrotexture and Microtexture
      • 3.1.1. Essential Relationships
      • 3.1.2. Relationships Derived from On-road Tests
      • 3.1.3. Spatial Distribution
    • 3.2. Relationship between Macrotexture, Rutting and Roughness
  • 4. RELATION OF SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND CRASH PATTERNS
    • 4.1. Skid Resistance
    • 4.2. Macrotexture
    • 4.3. Rutting
    • 4.4. Roughness
  • Before and after studies
  • 5. DISCUSSION
  • REFERENCES