Road design

Cover of Assessment of Key Road Operator Actions to Support Automated Vehicles
Assessment of Key Road Operator Actions to Support Automated Vehicles
  • Publication no: AP-R543-17
  • ISBN: 978-1-925451-69-6
  • Published: 16 May 2017

Australian and New Zealand road agencies and operators are preparing for the introduction of Automated Vehicles (AVs). This report investigates the potential changes needed to the way road networks are managed to consistently support and optimise the outcomes from the introduction of AVs.

The project reviewed international and local documents and initiatives and consulted a range of stakeholders to determine the emerging requirements for AVs to operate on public and private road networks (including urban and rural areas).

The report captures key issues in three broad categories:

  • physical infrastructure
  • digital infrastructure
  • road operations.

The report concludes with high level guidance for road agencies and operators. There are obvious challenges in providing practical guidance to agencies in a still evolving and changing environment, and some of the guidance, although still relevant, may be beyond the purview of individual road operators.

  • Glossary and Abbreviations
  • Summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Purpose
    • 1.2. Background
    • 1.3. Scope
    • 1.4. Methodology/Approach of Study
    • 1.5. Structure of this Report
  • 2. A Framework to Consider Automated Vehicles
    • 2.1. What is an Automated Vehicle? An Introduction to AVs
    • 2.2. Basics of AV Operation
      • 2.2.1. Operational Modes
      • 2.2.2. Sources of Error
      • 2.2.3. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
      • 2.2.4. Sensing and Navigating
    • 2.3. Frameworks for AV Operation
    • 2.4. AV Operational Use Cases
    • 2.5. Timeline for Deployment
    • 2.6. Summary
  • 3. Influences on AV Uptake and Usage
    • 3.1. Movement and Place
    • 3.2. Network Operations Planning Framework
    • 3.3. Mobility – Providing for or Containing the Increased Travel Demand
    • 3.4. Potential Positives and Potential Negatives of AV Usage
    • 3.5. Pricing and Taxation
    • 3.6. Vehicle Parking
    • 3.7. Public Transport – Changing Demands
    • 3.8. Planning for and Modelling Impacts of AV
    • 3.9. Governments and Regulators
    • 3.10. Summary
  • 4. Physical Infrastructure
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Australian and New Zealand Roads
    • 4.3. Implications of AVs on Road Infrastructure
      • 4.3.1. What Does This Mean for Existing Australian and New Zealand Road Signs and Road Markings?
      • 4.3.2. Changing Our Use of Infrastructure
      • 4.3.3. Changes to Design Standards and Guidelines
    • 4.4. Design of Road Infrastructure
      • 4.4.1. Revision to Current Design Methods
      • 4.4.2. Design Considerations to Accommodate AVs
      • 4.4.3. Designs and Maintenance of Structural Elements
      • 4.4.4. Design and Maintenance of Road Markings and Road Signs
    • 4.5. Roadworks
    • 4.6. Summary
  • 5. Digital Infrastructure
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Data Management and Access
    • 5.3. Positioning Services
      • 5.3.1. Requirements for Absolute Positioning
    • 5.4. Communication Technologies
    • 5.5. Summary
  • 6. Road Operations
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Current Approach to Road Operations
    • 6.3. Application of Existing Standards and Guidelines for AV
    • 6.4. AV Needs for Road Operations
    • 6.5. Reinforcing Strategic Road Hierarchy and Land Use
    • 6.6. Operational Needs of an AV: Providing Guidance through the Journey
    • 6.7. Road Works and Special Events
    • 6.8. Opportunities for Improved Road Operations
    • 6.9. Summary
  • 7. Guidance for Road Operators
  • References
  • Appendix A Stakeholder Input