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Cover of Design and Performance of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements: Progress Report 3
Design and Performance of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements: Progress Report 3
  • Publication no: AP-T303-15
  • ISBN: 978-1-925294-79-8
  • Published: 18 November 2015

There is a need to improve the Austroads procedures for mix design and structural design of foamed bitumen stabilised materials. This progress report summarises the mix design test methods drafted to date and those planned for 2015–16 within the context of an Austroads mix design process.

In relation to the structural design of foamed bitumen stabilised pavements, in March 2015, the Western Freeway, Ballan, Victoria trial section was constructed. The report details the construction and early-life monitoring of performance.

The results of testing other foamed bitumen stabilised sections are also provided, including performance of the early-life performance of Newell Highway, Bellata, New South Wales; Calder Freeway, Woodend, Victoria; and the fatigue cracking of Port Wakefield Road, Virginia, South Australian within two years of opening to traffic. In addition, the latest performance data from Kewdale Road in Canning, Western Australia; and the Kwinana Freeway in Perth are described.

  • . Summary
    • 12.1. Mix Design
      • 12.1.1. Test Methods
      • 12.1.2. Laboratory Characterisation
      • 12.1.3. Compliance Testing of Field-mixed Materials
    • 12.2. Construction and Performance of Field Trials
    • 12.3. Thickness Design
    • 12.4. Further Research
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mix Design Procedures
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Key Mix Design Characteristics
      • 2.2.1. Review of Austroads GPT Part 4D Framework
    • 2.3. Proposed Mix Design Framework
    • 2.4. Progress on Test Method Development
    • 2.5. Verification of Mix Properties During Construction
  • 3. Effect of Moisture Content and Lime Type on Resilient Modulus
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Influence of Moisture Content on Newell Highway Trial Mix
      • 3.2.1. Method
      • 3.2.2. Compactability
      • 3.2.3. Density and Modulus
      • 3.2.4. Dispersion of Bitumen
    • 3.3. Influence of Moisture Content on Western Freeway Trial Mix
      • 3.3.1. Method
    • 3.4. Effect of Lime Type
    • 3.5. Summary
  • 4. Effect of Laboratory Compaction Method and Mixing Method on Modulus
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Effect of Specimen Size
      • 4.2.1. Marshall Specimens
      • 4.2.2. Gyratory Specimens
    • 4.3. Compaction Method
      • 4.3.1. Comparative Testing of Newell Highway Material
      • 4.3.2. Comparative Testing of Calder Freeway Material
      • 4.3.3. Additional TMR Testing
      • 4.3.4. Working Group Review
    • 4.4. Comparison of Moduli of Laboratory-mixed and Field-mixed Materials
      • 4.4.1. Introduction
      • 4.4.2. Newell Highway Material
      • 4.4.3. Western Freeway Ballan
    • 4.5. Comparison of Laboratory-mixed and Compacted Moduli with Field Core Moduli
      • 4.5.1. Introduction
      • 4.5.2. Newell Highway, Bellata
      • 4.5.3. Western Freeway Ballan
    • 4.6. Effect of Time Delay between Mixing and Compaction
    • 4.7. Summary
  • 5. Western Freeway, Ballan
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 5.3. Inclusion of Asphalt Millings in Material to be Stabilised
    • 5.4. Mix Design
      • 5.4.1. Testing Prior to Construction
      • 5.4.2. Testing After Construction
    • 5.5. Thickness Design
    • 5.6. Construction of the FBS Trial Sections
      • 5.6.1. Introduction
      • 5.6.2. Preparation of the Material to be Stabilised
      • 5.6.3. Lime Stabilisation
      • 5.6.4. Foamed Bitumen Stabilisation
      • 5.6.5. Preparation of the Surface for Sealing
      • 5.6.6. Double/double Primerseal
    • 5.7. Sampling and Testing During Construction
      • 5.7.1. Field Density Testing
      • 5.7.2. Properties of Untreated Material Sampled from the Roadbed
      • 5.7.3. Lime Content
      • 5.7.4. Bitumen Content
      • 5.7.5. Particle Size Distribution of Field-mixed Materials
      • 5.7.6. Maximum Dry Densities and Optimum Moisture Contents of Field-mixed Material
      • 5.7.7. Modulus Testing of Laboratory-compacted Field-mixed Material
    • 5.8. Traffic Monitoring
    • 5.9. Performance Monitoring
      • 5.9.1. Surface Deflections
      • 5.9.2. Back-calculated Moduli
      • 5.9.3. Field Core Moduli
      • 5.9.4. Roughness and Rutting
    • 5.10. Performance Prediction
    • 5.11. Future Monitoring
    • 5.12. Western Freeway Trial Summary
  • 6. Newell Highway, Bellata
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
      • 6.2.1. Traffic Loading
      • 6.2.2. Pavement Visual Condition Prior to Works
      • 6.2.3. Pavement Investigation Prior to Works
      • 6.2.4. Estimated In Situ CBR of the Natural Subgrade
      • 6.2.5. Laboratory Testing of Excavated Materials
    • 6.3. Mix Design
      • 6.3.1. RMS
      • 6.3.2. Downer Infrastructure Testing
      • 6.3.3. Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR), Queensland, Testing
    • 6.4. Thickness Design
    • 6.5. Construction and Testing of the FBS Trial Section
      • 6.5.1. Construction of the FBS Pavement
      • 6.5.2. Lime Content
      • 6.5.3. Residual Bitumen Contents
      • 6.5.4. Field Density and Moisture Testing
      • 6.5.5. Differences between Nuclear Gauge and Oven-dried Moisture Contents
      • 6.5.6. Modulus Testing of Laboratory-compacted Field-mixed Material
      • 6.5.7. Opening to Traffic and Placement of Sprayed Seal
    • 6.6. Performance Monitoring
      • 6.6.1. Surface Deflections
      • 6.6.2. Moduli Back-calculated from Measured Surface Deflections
      • 6.6.3. Testing of Field Cores
      • 6.6.4. Rutting and Roughness
      • 6.6.5. Visual Survey
    • 6.7. Future Monitoring
    • 6.8. Newell Highway Trial Summary
  • 7. Calder Freeway, Woodend
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 7.3. Properties of the Untreated Crushed Rock Base
    • 7.4. Mix Design
      • 7.4.1. Downer Infrastructure Testing
      • 7.4.2. Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland Testing
      • 7.4.3. Adopted Mix Design
    • 7.5. Thickness Design
      • 7.5.1. FBS Crushed Rock Base
      • 7.5.2. Asphalt Section
    • 7.6. Construction and Testing of the FBS Trial Section
      • 7.6.1. Construction of the FBS Pavement
      • 7.6.2. Surface Prior to Sealing
      • 7.6.3. Double/double Primerseal
      • 7.6.4. Field Density Testing
      • 7.6.5. Properties of Untreated Material Sampled from the Roadbed
      • 7.6.6. Lime Content
      • 7.6.7. Bitumen Content
      • 7.6.8. Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content
      • 7.6.9. Modulus Testing of Laboratory-compacted Field-mixed Material
    • 7.7. Construction of Asphalt Section
    • 7.8. Surface Deflections
      • 7.8.1. Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Sections
      • 7.8.2. Asphalt Section
    • 7.9. Moduli Back-calculated from Measured Surface Deflections
      • 7.9.1. FBS Section
      • 7.9.2. Asphalt
    • 7.10. Field Core Moduli
      • 7.10.1. Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Material
      • 7.10.2. Asphalt
    • 7.11. Surface Cracking
      • 7.11.1. Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Section
      • 7.11.2. Asphalt
    • 7.12. Rutting and Roughness
    • 7.13. Effect of Temperature on Deflections and Moduli
    • 7.14. Traffic Loading
    • 7.15. Performance Prediction
    • 7.16. Future Monitoring
    • 7.17. Calder Freeway Trial Summary
  • 8. Port Wakefield Road, Virginia
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 8.3. Mix Design
    • 8.4. Thickness Design
    • 8.5. Pavement Construction
      • 8.5.1. FBS Sections
      • 8.5.2. Asphalt Section
    • 8.6. Visual Condition Monitoring
    • 8.7. Pavement Investigation
      • 8.7.1. Asphalt Section
      • 8.7.2. FBS Sections
    • 8.8. Pavement Deflections
    • 8.9. Rutting and Roughness
    • 8.10. Traffic Monitoring
    • 8.11. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
    • 8.12. Port Wakefield Road Trial Summary
  • 9. Kewdale Road, Welshpool
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 9.3. Mix Design
    • 9.4. Thickness Design
    • 9.5. Pavement Construction
    • 9.6. Pavement Condition Monitoring
    • 9.7. Traffic Monitoring
    • 9.8. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
    • 9.9. Kewdale Road Trial Summary
  • 10. Kwinana Freeway, Perth
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 10.3. Mix Design
    • 10.4. Thickness Design
    • 10.5. Pavement Construction
    • 10.6. Condition Monitoring
      • 10.6.1. Visual Condition
      • 10.6.2. Rutting
      • 10.6.3. Surface Deflections
    • 10.7. Traffic Monitoring
    • 10.8. Performance Review
    • 10.9. Kwinana Freeway Trial Summary
  • 11. Proposed 2015 and 2016 Research
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Mix Design
    • 11.3. Structural Design
  • 12. Summary
  • References
  • Appendix A Field Performance Monitoring Procedures for LTPP Sites
  • A.1 Visual Inspection Procedure
  • A.1.1 General
  • A.1.2 Detailed Procedure
  • With traffic control arrangements
  • Without traffic control arrangements
  • A.2 Rutting and Roughness Testing Procedures
  • A.2.1 General
  • A.2.2 Roughness
  • A.2.3 Rutting
  • A.2.4 Site Establishment
  • A.2.5 MLP Testing
  • A.2.6 Reporting Data
  • A.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing Procedures
  • A.3.1 General
  • A.3.2 Detailed Test Plan
  • A.3.3 FWD Testing
  • A.3.4 Temperature Gradient Measurements
  • A.3.5 Crack Widths
  • A.3.6 Calibration
  • A.3.7 Reporting Data
  • Appendix B Back-Calculated Moduli
  • B.1 Calder Freeway Trial Section
  • B.1.1 Foamed Bitumen Stabilisation Section
  • B.1.2 Asphalt Section
  • B.2 Newell Highway Trial Section
  • B.3 Western Freeway Ballan Trial Sections