Pavement

Cover of Design and Performance of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements: Progress Report 2
Design and Performance of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements: Progress Report 2
  • Publication no: AP-T275-14
  • ISBN: 978-1-925037-87-6
  • Published: 9 October 2014

There is a need to improve the Austroads procedures for the mix and structural designs of foamed bitumen stabilised materials.

This progress report summarises the mix design test methods drafted to date and those planned for 2014-15 within the context of an Austroads mix design process.

The report details the construction and early-life performance of trial sections of foamed bitumen stabilised pavements, developed in October 2013 on the Newell Highway at Bellata in New South Wales.

It also provides the results of testing other foamed bitumen stabilised sections, including early-life performance of the Calder Freeway Woodend Victoria and the fatigue cracking of Port Wakefield Road, in Virginia South Australian within two years of opening to traffic. In addition, it also describes the latest performance data from Kewdale Road in Canning and the Kwinana Freeway in Perth Western Australia.

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mix Design Procedures
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Key Mix Design Characteristics
      • 2.2.1. Review of Austroads Guide Part 4D Framework
    • 2.3. Proposed Mix Design Framework
    • 2.4. Progress on Test Method Development
    • 2.5. Verification of Mix Properties During Construction
  • 3. Effect of Moisture Content and Lime Type on Resilient Modulus
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Influence of Moisture Content
      • 3.2.1. Method
      • 3.2.2. Compactibility
      • 3.2.3. Density and Modulus
      • 3.2.4. Dispersion of Bitumen
    • 3.3. Summary
  • 4. Effect of Laboratory Compaction Method and Mixing Method on Modulus
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Effect of Specimen Size
      • 4.2.1. Marshall Specimens
      • 4.2.2. Gyratory Specimens
    • 4.3. Compaction Method
      • 4.3.1. Comparative Testing of Newell Highway Material
      • 4.3.2. Additional TMR Testing
    • 4.4. Comparison of Moduli of Laboratory-mixed and Field-mixed Materials
    • 4.5. Comparison of Laboratory-mixed and Compacted Moduli with Field Core Moduli
    • 4.6. Review and Recommendation of the Working Group
  • 5. Newell Highway Bellata
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
      • 5.2.1. Traffic Loading
      • 5.2.2. Pavement Visual Condition Prior to Works
      • 5.2.3. Pavement Investigation Prior to Works
      • 5.2.4. Estimated In Situ CBR of the Natural Subgrade
      • 5.2.5. Laboratory Testing of Excavated Materials
    • 5.3. Mix Design
      • 5.3.1. RMS
      • 5.3.2. Downer Infrastructure Testing
      • 5.3.3. Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland Testing
    • 5.4. Thickness Design
    • 5.5. Construction and Testing of the FBS Trial Section
      • 5.5.1. Construction of the FBS Pavement
      • 5.5.2. Lime Content
      • 5.5.3. Residual Bitumen Contents
      • 5.5.4. Field Density and Moisture Testing
      • 5.5.5. Differences between Nuclear Gauge and Oven-dried Moisture Contents
      • 5.5.6. Modulus Testing of Laboratory Compacted Field-mixed Material
      • 5.5.7. Opening to Traffic and Placement of Sprayed Seal
    • 5.6. Early-life Characteristics
      • 5.6.1. Surface Deflections
      • 5.6.2. Field Core Moduli
      • 5.6.3. Rutting and Roughness
  • 6. Calder Freeway Woodend
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 6.3. Properties of the Untreated Crushed Rock Base
    • 6.4. Mix Design
      • 6.4.1. Downer Infrastructure Testing
      • 6.4.2. Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland Testing
      • 6.4.3. Adopted Mix Design
    • 6.5. Thickness Design
      • 6.5.1. FBS Crushed Rock Base
      • 6.5.2. Asphalt Section
    • 6.6. Construction and Testing of the FBS Trial Section
      • 6.6.1. Construction of the FBS Pavement
      • 6.6.2. Surface Prior to Sealing
      • 6.6.3. Two-coat Primerseal
      • 6.6.4. Field Density Testing
      • 6.6.5. Properties of Untreated Material Sampled from the Roadbed
      • 6.6.6. Lime Content
      • 6.6.7. Bitumen Content
      • 6.6.8. Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content
      • 6.6.9. Modulus Testing of Laboratory Compacted Field-mixed Material
    • 6.7. Construction of Asphalt Section
    • 6.8. Early-life Characteristics
      • 6.8.1. Surface Deflections
      • 6.8.2. Moduli Back-calculated from Measured Surface Deflections
      • 6.8.3. Field Core Moduli
      • 6.8.4. Surface Cracking
      • 6.8.5. Rutting and Roughness
    • 6.9. Effect of Temperature on Moduli
    • 6.10. Traffic Monitoring
    • 6.11. Performance Prediction
  • 7. Port Wakefield Road Virginia
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 7.3. Mix Design
    • 7.4. Thickness Design
    • 7.5. Pavement Construction
      • 7.5.1. FBS Sections
      • 7.5.2. Asphalt Section
    • 7.6. Visual Condition Monitoring
    • 7.7. Pavement Investigation
      • 7.7.1. Asphalt Section
      • 7.7.2. FBS Sections
    • 7.8. Pavement Deflections
    • 7.9. Rutting and Roughness
    • 7.10. Traffic Monitoring
    • 7.11. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
  • 8. Kewdale Road Welshpool
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 8.3. Mix Design
    • 8.4. Thickness Design
    • 8.5. Pavement Construction
    • 8.6. Pavement Condition Monitoring
    • 8.7. Traffic Monitoring
    • 8.8. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
  • 9. Kwinana Freeway Perth
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 9.3. Mix Design
    • 9.4. Thickness Design
    • 9.5. Pavement Construction
    • 9.6. Condition Monitoring
    • 9.7. Traffic Monitoring
    • 9.8. Performance Review
  • 10. Proposed 2014–15 Research
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Mix Design
      • 10.2.1. Test Methods
      • 10.2.2. Proposed Research
    • 10.3. Structural Design
      • 10.3.1. Distress Modes
      • 10.3.2. FBS Design Modulus
      • 10.3.3. FBS Fatigue
    • 10.4. Field Performance Monitoring
      • 10.4.1. Newell Highway Bellata
      • 10.4.2. Calder Freeway Woodend
      • 10.4.3. Kewdale Road Welshpool
      • 10.4.4. Kwinana Freeway Perth
      • 10.4.5. Additional Sites
  • 11. Summary
    • 11.1. Mix Design
      • 11.1.1. Test Methods
      • 11.1.2. Laboratory Characterisation
    • 11.2. Field Performance and Thickness Design
    • 11.3. Further Research
  • References
  • ASTM Standards
  • Australian Standard
  • Appendix A Field Performance Monitoring Procedures For LTPP Sites
  • A.1 Visual Inspection Procedure
  • A.1.1 General
  • A.1.2 Detailed Procedure
  • A.2 Rutting and Roughness Testing Procedures
  • A.2.1 General
  • A.2.2 Roughness
  • A.2.3 Rutting
  • A.2.4 Site Establishment
  • A.2.5 MLP Testing
  • A.2.6 Reporting Data
  • A.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing Procedures
  • A.3.1 General
  • A.3.2 Detailed Test Plan
  • A.3.3 FWD Testing
  • A.3.4 Temperature Gradient Measurements
  • A.3.5 Crack Widths
  • A.3.6 Calibration
  • A.3.7 Reporting Data
  • Appendix B Back-calculated Moduli
  • B.1 Calder Freeway Trial Section
  • B.1.1 Foamed Bitumen Stabilisation Section
  • B.1.2 Asphalt Section