Pavement

Cover of Design and Performance of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements: Progress Report 1
Design and Performance of Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Pavements: Progress Report 1
  • Publication no: AP-T247-13
  • ISBN: 978-1-925037-20-3
  • Published: 27 September 2013

This report is the first progress report of a four year project which aims to improve the Austroads procedures for the mix and structural design of foamed bitumen stabilised materials.

The report summarises the test methods drafted to date and details the results of monitoring foamed bitumen stabilised pavement trial sites on:

- the Calder Freeway at Woodend, Victoria which was constructed specifically for this project in 2013

- Port Wakefield Road in Virginia, South Australia constructed in 2011 and which experienced fatigue cracking within two years of opening to traffic

- Kewdale Road in Canning, Western Australia constructed in 2011 and which experiences shear stresses due to braking and acceleration of heavy vehicles

- the Kwinana Freeway in Perth, Western Australia constructed in 2010, and

- the New England Highway south of Toowoomba, Queensland constructed in 2009.

The report also identifies the mix design and structural design project tasks for 2013–14.

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mix Design Procedures
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Key Mix Design Characteristics
      • 2.2.1. Review of Austroads Guide Part 4D Framework
    • 2.3. Proposed Mix Design Framework
    • 2.4. Progress on Test Method Development
    • 2.5. Verification of Mix Properties during Construction
  • 3. Calder Freeway Woodend
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 3.3. Properties of the Untreated Crushed Rock Base
    • 3.4. Mix Design
      • 3.4.1. Downer Infrastructure Testing
      • 3.4.2. Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland Testing
      • 3.4.3. Adopted Mix Design
    • 3.5. Thickness Design
    • 3.6. Construction and Testing of the Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Trial Section
      • 3.6.1. Construction of the FBS Pavement
      • 3.6.2. Surface Prior to Sealing
      • 3.6.3. Two-coat Primerseal
      • 3.6.4. Field Density Testing
      • 3.6.5. Laboratory Testing of Field Samples
    • 3.7. Construction of Asphalt Section
    • 3.8. Early-life Characteristics
      • 3.8.1. Surface Deflections
      • 3.8.2. Field Core Moduli
      • 3.8.3. Rutting and Roughness
    • 3.9. Effect of Temperature on Moduli
    • 3.10. Effect of Laboratory Compaction Method on Modulus
    • 3.11. Traffic Monitoring
    • 3.12. Performance Prediction
  • 4. Port Wakefield Road Virginia
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 4.3. Mix Design
    • 4.4. Thickness Design
    • 4.5. Pavement Construction
      • 4.5.1. Foamed Bitumen Stabilised Sections
      • 4.5.2. Asphalt Section
    • 4.6. Visual Condition Monitoring
    • 4.7. Pavement Investigation
      • 4.7.1. Asphalt Section
      • 4.7.2. FBS Sections
    • 4.8. Pavement Deflections
    • 4.9. Rutting and Roughness
    • 4.10. Traffic Monitoring
    • 4.11. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
  • 5. Kewdale Road Welshpool
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 5.3. Mix Design
    • 5.4. Thickness Design
    • 5.5. Pavement Construction
    • 5.6. Pavement Condition Monitoring
    • 5.7. Traffic Monitoring
    • 5.8. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
  • 6. Kwinana Freeway Perth
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 6.3. Mix Design
    • 6.4. Thickness Design
    • 6.5. Pavement Construction
    • 6.6. Condition Monitoring
    • 6.7. Traffic Monitoring
    • 6.8. Performance Review
  • 7. New England Highway Queensland
    • 7.1. Brief Description
    • 7.2. Site Investigation Prior to Stabilisation
    • 7.3. Mix Design
    • 7.4. Thickness Design
    • 7.5. Pavement Construction
    • 7.6. Pavement Coring
    • 7.7. Pavement Maintenance
    • 7.8. Performance Monitoring
      • 7.8.1. Visual Inspections
      • 7.8.2. 2012 Roughness and Rutting Data
    • 7.9. Traffic Monitoring
    • 7.10. Performance Prediction
    • 7.11. Comparison of Observed and Predicted Performance
  • 8. Proposed 2013–14 research
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Mix Design
      • 8.2.1. Test Methods
      • 8.2.2. Laboratory Testing
    • 8.3. Structural Design
      • 8.3.1. Calder Freeway Woodend
      • 8.3.2. Port Wakefield Road Virginia
      • 8.3.3. Kewdale Road Welshpool
      • 8.3.4. Kwinana Freeway Perth
      • 8.3.5. New England Highway Queensland
      • 8.3.6. Review Other Monitoring Sites
      • 8.3.7. Additional Sites
  • 9. Summary
    • 9.1. Mix Design
    • 9.2. Thickness Design
  • References
  • Appendix A Field Performance Monitoring Procedures for LTPP Sites
  • A.1 Visual Inspection Procedure
  • A.1.1 General
  • A.1.2 Detailed Procedure
  • A.2 Rutting and Roughness Testing Procedures
  • A.2.1 General
  • A.2.2 Roughness
  • A.2.3 Rutting
  • A.2.4 Site Establishment
  • A.2.5 MLP Testing
  • A.2.6 Reporting Data
  • A.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing Procedures
  • A.3.1 General
  • A.3.2 Detailed Test Plan
  • A.3.3 FWD Testing
  • A.3.4 Temperature Gradient Measurements
  • A.3.5 Crack Widths
  • A.3.6 Calibration
  • A.3.7 Reporting Data