Pavement

Cover of The Influence of Multiple Axle Loads on the Performance of an Unbound Granular Pavement under Accelerated Loading: Interim Data Report
The Influence of Multiple Axle Loads on the Performance of an Unbound Granular Pavement under Accelerated Loading: Interim Data Report
  • Publication no: AP-T232-13
  • ISBN: 978-1-921991-87-5
  • Published: 3 April 2013

This report details the data collected during the performance assessment of a typical unbound granular pavement under accelerated loading, using the Accelerated Loading Facility (ALF) with single, tandem and triaxle axle group loads.

As part of the research the ALF machine was modified to allow the application of (half) tandem and triaxle groups in addition to a (half) single axle. Additionally, the axle assemblies were redesigned to better emulate the suspension of a standard heavy vehicle.

For this study, 12 identical test pavement sections were constructed inside the ALF shed in Melbourne. The pavements comprised of a representative crushed rock base material overlying an average subgrade and surfaced with a double/double sprayed seal using a polymer modified emulsion binder. Two additional experiment locations were trafficked between the originally planned 12 locations.

Analysis of the data, and any resulting recommendations, will be the subject of separate reporting at a later date.

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Accelerated Loading Facility
    • 2.1. Description of ALF
    • 2.2. Multiple Axle Modifications
      • 2.2.1. Changes to ALF Design
      • 2.2.2. New ALF Configuration
    • 2.3. Description of Site
  • 3. Experimental Design
    • 3.1. Pavement
      • 3.1.1. Test Pavement Structure
      • 3.1.2. Subgrade Material Selection
      • 3.1.3. Base Material Selection
      • 3.1.4. Layout of Test Pavement
    • 3.2. Program
    • 3.3. Data Collection
  • 4. Pavement Construction
    • 4.1. General
    • 4.2. Temporary Removal of Wall Panels
    • 4.3. Removal of Existing Pavements from Previous Trial
    • 4.4. Reclamation of Clay Subgrade Material from Borrow Pit
    • 4.5. Construction of New Base Layer
    • 4.6. Sprayed Seal
    • 4.7. Construction Evaluation
    • 4.8. Post-construction Activity
  • 5. Characteristics of Accelerated Load Test Program
    • 5.1. General
    • 5.2. Additional Experiments
    • 5.3. Transverse Distribution
    • 5.4. Pavement Bedding-in
    • 5.5. Experiment Progression
  • 6. Data Acquisition
    • 6.1. General
    • 6.2. Line Marking
    • 6.3. Pavement Deflection
    • 6.4. Dynamic Loading
    • 6.5. Pavement Deformation
      • 6.5.1. ALF Profilometer
      • 6.5.2. Data Collection
      • 6.5.3. Surface Deformation Calculation
      • 6.5.4. Difference between Deformation and Rutting
    • 6.6. Forensic Data
      • 6.6.1. General
      • 6.6.2. Photographic Records
      • 6.6.3. Pavement Density
      • 6.6.4. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
      • 6.6.5. Particle Size Distribution and Moisture Content
      • 6.6.6. Trenching
  • 7. Experiments Conducted
    • 7.1. General
    • 7.2. Experiment 3502 – Triaxle with 90 kN Total Load
      • 7.2.1. Summary
      • 7.2.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.2.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.2.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.2.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.2.6. Particle Size Distribution of Base Material
      • 7.2.7. Subgrade Support
      • 7.2.8. Trenching
    • 7.3. Experiment 3508 – Tandem Axle with 60 kN Total Load
      • 7.3.1. Summary
      • 7.3.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.3.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.3.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.3.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.3.6. Particle Size Distribution of Base Material
      • 7.3.7. Subgrade Support
      • 7.3.8. Trenching
    • 7.4. Experiment 3505 – Tandem Axle with 80 kN Total Load
      • 7.4.1. Summary
      • 7.4.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.4.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.4.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.4.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.4.6. Particle Size Distribution of Base Material
      • 7.4.7. Subgrade Support
      • 7.4.8. Trenching
    • 7.5. Experiment 3511 – Single Axle with 40 kN Total Load
      • 7.5.1. Summary
      • 7.5.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.5.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.5.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.5.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.5.6. Particle Size Distribution of Base Material
      • 7.5.7. Subgrade Support
      • 7.5.8. Trenching
    • 7.6. Experiment 3504 – Triaxle with 90 kN Total Load
      • 7.6.1. Summary
      • 7.6.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.6.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.6.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.6.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.6.6. Particle Size Distribution of Base Material
      • 7.6.7. Subgrade Support
      • 7.6.8. Trenching
    • 7.7. Experiment 3507 – Single Axle with 40 kN Total Load
      • 7.7.1. Summary
      • 7.7.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.7.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.7.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.7.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.7.6. Subgrade Support
      • 7.7.7. Trenching
    • 7.8. Experiment 3503 – Tandem Axle with 60 kN Total Load
      • 7.8.1. Summary
      • 7.8.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.8.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.8.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.8.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.8.6. Subgrade Support
      • 7.8.7. Trenching
    • 7.9. Experiment 3506 – Tandem Axle with 80 kN Total Load
      • 7.9.1. Summary
      • 7.9.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.9.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.9.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.9.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.9.6. Subgrade Support
      • 7.9.7. Trenching
    • 7.10. Experiment 3501 – Triaxle with 90 kN Total Load
      • 7.10.1. Summary
      • 7.10.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.10.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.10.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.10.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.10.6. Particle Size Distribution of Base Material
      • 7.10.7. Subgrade Support
      • 7.10.8. Trenching
    • 7.11. Experiment 3510 – Single Axle with 40 kN Total Load
      • 7.11.1. Summary
      • 7.11.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.11.3. Pavement Deflection
    • 7.12. Experiment 3500 – Single Axle with 40 kN Total Load
      • 7.12.1. Summary
      • 7.12.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.12.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.12.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.12.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.12.6. Subgrade Support
    • 7.13. Experiment 3512 – Tandem Axle with 80 kN Total Load
      • 7.13.1. Summary
      • 7.13.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.13.3. Pavement Deflection
    • 7.14. Experiment 3514 – Tandem Axle with 80 kN Total Load
      • 7.14.1. Summary
      • 7.14.2. Pavement Deformation
      • 7.14.3. Pavement Deflection
      • 7.14.4. Surface Appearance
      • 7.14.5. Density and Moisture Content of Base Material
      • 7.14.6. Subgrade Support
  • 8. Consolidated Results
  • 9. Summary
  • References
  • Appendix A Properties of Base material
  • Appendix B Relative Levels of Pavement Layers
  • Appendix C Density and Moisture Content Data collected during Construction
  • Appendix D Ambient temperature data
  • Appendix E Dynamic Load Data and Valid Chainages
  • Appendix F Surface Deformation Data
  • Appendix G Falling Weight Deflectometer data
  • Appendix H Photographic Records of Pavement Condition
  • Appendix I Post-trafficking density and moisture content data
  • Appendix J Particle Size Distribution
  • Appendix K Subgrade support DATA
  • Appendix L Layer Interfaces from trenching