Pavement

Cover of The Influence of Compaction on the Performance of Dense Graded Asphalt
The Influence of Compaction on the Performance of Dense Graded Asphalt
  • Publication no: AP-T194-11
  • ISBN: 978-1-921991-06-6
  • Published: 28 October 2011

This report summarises some of the literature dealing with the compaction of dense graded asphalt. Compaction of asphalt is usually expressed in terms of air void content. This is necessary as the aggregate which constitutes about 95% of the mass of an asphalt can have significantly different particle densities depending upon the aggregate source. The measurement of compaction level requires that the bulk density of the compacted asphalt be compared against a reference density (typically the maximum density or voidless density). However, the bulk density test has several variations in the manner in which the sample volume is determined. The sample has a true volume which includes occluded voids and the internal voids that are linked to the surface. The true sample volume excludes any volume associated with the surface texture of the test sample.

  • 1. WHY IS ASPHALT COMPACTED?
  • 2. MEASUREMENT OF COMPACTION
    • 2.1. Bulk Density
      • 2.1.1. Mensuration Method
      • 2.1.2. Saturation Method
      • 2.1.3. Vacuum Sealing Method
      • 2.1.4. Coating Method
      • 2.1.5. Comparisons
    • 2.2. Reference Densities
      • 2.2.1. Maximum Density
      • 2.2.2. Other Reference Densities
  • 3. COMPACTION IN THE LABORATORY
    • 3.1. Compaction Apparatus
      • 3.1.1. Rolling Wheel
      • 3.1.2. Gyratory Compaction
      • 3.1.3. Impact Compaction
      • 3.1.4. Static Compaction
      • 3.1.5. Vibratory Compaction
      • 3.1.6. Kneading Compaction
    • 3.2. Current Position with Regard to Laboratory Compaction
  • 4. COMPACTION IN THE FIELD
    • 4.1. Rolling
      • 4.1.1. Initial Compaction
      • 4.1.2. Intermediate Rolling
      • 4.1.3. Finish Rolling
      • 4.1.4. Rolling Patterns
      • 4.1.5. Workability
      • 4.1.6. Traffic Compaction
  • 5. EFFECTS OF COMPACTION
    • 5.1. Field Studies
      • 5.1.1. General Studies
      • 5.1.2. Bitumen Hardening
      • 5.1.3. The Application of Price Reductions
    • 5.2. Laboratory Compaction Effects
      • 5.2.1. Aggregate Fracture
      • 5.2.2. Voids Distribution
      • 5.2.3. Particle Orientation
    • 5.3. Rutting
    • 5.4. Fatigue
    • 5.5. Modulus
    • 5.6. Permeability
    • 5.7. Moisture Sensitivity
  • 6. CONCLUSIONS
    • 6.1. Measurement of Compaction
    • 6.2. Field Compaction
    • 6.3. Laboratory Compaction
    • 6.4. Effects of Compaction
  • REFERENCES