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2.2.3 Whole-of-life Costing

Whole-of-life costing recognises all user costs and road construction and maintenance costs that are expected in the long term and is used to evaluate alternative treatments that have different construction and maintenance cash‑flow streams.

Cost elements should include construction and future maintenance and rehabilitation, as well as user costs. User costs can include increased vehicle operating costs due to deteriorated pavement roughness and delay expected during maintenance and rehabilitation activities.