• Tables
• Figures

# Appendix D Determination of Maximum Pavement Temperature

For this Guide, the pavement temperature regime is categorised as low, medium or high, based on maximum pavement temperatures determined in accordance with the procedures described below.

Pavement temperature categories used for the selection of modified binders are shown in Table D 1.

Table D 1: Pavement surface temperature

Maximum pavement surface temperatureTemperature category
< 52 °CLow
52–58 °CMedium
> 58 °CHigh

The values contained in the following tables may be used to select a maximum pavement surface temperature (Tmax) (°C) for use in assessing the pavement temperature regime (Table D 1).

The following method was used to calculate the Tmax at each site using data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology web site (http://www.bom.gov.au):

1. For each state or territory consult climate averages listed under climate information.
2. Select monthly statistics for the appropriate site from the alphabetical list. For example, Victorian sites are listed under http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/ca_vic_names.shtml.
3. Use ‘all available’ statistics to view detailed data.
4. Determine the highest ‘decile 9 maximum temperature’ (90th percentile, or T90, temperature) for the selected site.
5. Record the latitude of the site, also shown on the same web page.
6. Use the appropriate relationship from Table D 2 for the site latitude to determine Tmax for the site.

Table D 2: Tmax by latitude

LatitudeRelationship between Tmax and T90
> 41°STmax = T90 + 20 °C
35°S to 41°STmax = T90 + 21 °C
27°S to 35°STmax = T90 + 22 °C
24°S to 27°STmax = T90 + 23 °C
< 24°STmax = T90 + 24 °C

Tmax values for various places in Australia are provided in Table D 3 and Table D 4.

Table D 3: Tmax for Australian capital cities

Capital cities
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Brisbane27.532.755
Canberra35.335.056
Darwin airport12.434.959
Hobart42.927.848
Melbourne37.835.657
Perth airport31.938.561
Sydney (CBD)33.930.152

Table D 4: Tmax for Australian locations

New South Wales & ACT
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Albury36.137.959
Armidale30.531.053
Bathurst33.434.156
Bega36.733.454
Bellingen30.535.458
Blayney33.531.755
Bourke30.142.264
Braidwood35.434.556
Broken Hill32.039.862
Byron Bay28.630.452
Campbelltown34.135.858
Canberra35.335.056
Casino28.935.758
Cessnock32.837.760
Cobar31.541.163
Cooma36.233.754
Coonabarabran31.336.659
Cowra33.937.860
Deniliquin35.640.061
Dubbo32.238.260
Forbes33.439.862
Glen Innes29.730.953
Gosford33.433.956
Goulburn34.835.057
Grafton29.734.957
Griffith34.337.459
Gundagai35.138.660
Hay34.540.062
Inverell29.834.757
Katoomba33.730.252
Kempsey31.132.555
Kiandra35.926.147
Lismore28.834.557
Lithgow33.532.054
Liverpool33.934.659
Merimbula36.927.348
Molong33.136.158
Moree29.538.260
Moruya35.926.147
Moss Vale34.531.555
Mudgee32.636.258
Murwillumbah28.433.656
Narooma36.226.648
Narrabri30.338.561
Narrandera34.739.461
Newcastle32.929.451
Nowra34.931.954
Nyngan31.640.062
Orange33.333.355
Parkes33.238.060
Parramatta33.835.057
Port Macquarie31.528.050
Richmond33.635.558
Singleton32.637.660
Sydney (CBD)33.930.152
Tamworth31.137.059
Taree31.934.558
Tenterfield29.131.554
Thredbo36.527.048
Tumut35.335.657
Wagga Wagga35.237.959
Walgett31.041.163
Wellington32.536.859
Wentworth34.140.062
Wilcannia31.642.064
Wollongong34.430.452
Yass34.836.058
Young34.337.059
Victoria
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Bairnsdale37.834.055
Ballarat37.533.755
Benalla36.637.058
Bendigo36.836.157
Bright36.734.956
Colac38.335.056
Dandenong38.035.056
Echuca36.238.259
Frankston38.232.353
Geelong38.134.455
Horsham36.737.859
Melbourne37.835.657
Mildura34.240.663
Nhill36.337.859
Omeo37.132.954
Orbost37.734.355
Ouyen35.139.961
Swan Hill35.338.359
Wangaratta36.437.258
Warragul38.234.055
Warrnambool38.432.353
Wodonga36.137.859
Yallourn38.233.054
Queensland
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Bowen20.033.758
Brisbane27.532.755
Cairns16.934.458
Caloundra26.829.853
Charleville26.441.165
Charters Towers20.138.663
Cooktown15.533.958
Cunnamulla28.141.163
Dalby27.236.759
Emerald23.538.963
Georgetown18.339.463
Gympie26.235.458
Ipswich27.636.358
Kingaroy26.633.757
Mackay21.132.857
Maryborough25.533.557
Miles26.737.360
Monto24.936.059
Mount Isa20.741.766
Nambour26.633.757
Rockhampton23.435.860
Roma26.638.962
Southport28.031.253
St George28.039.061
Toowoomba27.632.254
Townsville19.233.558
Warwick28.234.557
South Australia
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Ceduna32.140.062
Coober Pedy29.043.065
Keith36.138.259
Mount Gambier37.833.655
Murray Bridge35.138.459
Port Augusta32.540.262
Port Pirie33.240.062
Renmark34.239.862
Whyalla33.039.061
Western Australia
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Albany35.027.150
Broome18.037.862
Bunbury33.435.157
Cape Leeuwin34.426.048
Carnarvon24.937.863
Dampier20.741.065
Esperance33.834.857
Eucla31.737.359
Fremantle32.136.058
Geraldton28.840.162
Kalgoorlie30.840.663
Kununurra15.841.465
Manjimup34.334.456
Meekatharra26.642.265
Merredin31.540.062
Morawa29.242.264
Mt Magnet28.142.965
Narrogin32.937.259
Norseman32.239.161
Northam31.740.563
Ongerup34.036.058
Paraburdoo23.244.168
Perth Airport31.938.561
York31.940.362
Northern Territory
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Alice Springs23.741.165
Barrow Creek21.541.265
Daly Waters16.340.665
Darwin Airport12.434.959
Katherine14.540.364
Tennant Creek19.641.666
Tasmania
SiteLatitudeT90Tmax
Burnie41.124.545
Campbell Town41.930.350
Devonport41.224.045
Flinders Island40.127.549
Geeveston43.228.949
Hobart42.927.848
King Island39.925.346
Launceston41.528.549
New Norfolk42.830.551
Queenstown42.129.349
St Helens41.328.248
Scottsdale41.227.649
Swansea42.127.247