Low and zero emission vehicles

Cover of Assessment of Key Road Operator Actions to Support Electric Vehicles
Assessment of Key Road Operator Actions to Support Electric Vehicles
  • Publication no: AP-R614-20
  • ISBN: 978-1-925854-90-9
  • Published: 7 February 2020

This report identifies actions that road operators can take to support the transition to electric vehicles (EVs). It is intended to clarify the role of road operators and other government departments (e.g. energy, environment) in the areas that affect EV deployment – policy, infrastructure, regulation and incentives.

The report classifies actions into two categories: core road operator functions and non-core functions. This approach enables individual agencies to select actions based on how proactive or reactive they see their role in supporting (or not constraining) the rollout of EVs in their jurisdictions.

In the context of this report, road operator is used as a term to reflect road and transport agencies but may also refer to local government and private road operators. Where actions are assigned to road operators, they are assigned to Austroads member agencies.

  • Summary
  • Glossary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Report Structure
  • 2. Project Overview
    • 2.1 Background
    • 2.2 Scope
    • 2.3 Project Delivery
  • 3. Technology Overview
    • 3.1 Electric Vehicle Technologies
    • 3.2 Charging Technologies
      • 3.2.1 Conductive EV Charging
      • 3.2.2 Inductive EV Charging
    • 3.3 Major Differences Between EVs and ICEs
    • 3.4 Benefits and Disadvantages of EVs
      • 3.4.1 EV Benefits
      • 3.4.2 EV Disadvantages
  • 4. Market Context (EV Adoption Trends)
    • 4.1 International EV Uptake
      • 4.1.1 Light Vehicles
      • 4.1.2 Heavy Vehicles – Buses
      • 4.1.3 Heavy Vehicles – Trucks
    • 4.2 Australian and New Zealand Uptake
      • 4.2.1 Light Vehicles
      • 4.2.2 Heavy Vehicles – Buses
      • 4.2.3 Heavy Vehicles – Trucks
    • 4.3 Charging Infrastructure
      • 4.3.1 Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment
      • 4.3.2 Hydrogen Refuelling
  • 5. Government and Road Operator Role
    • 5.1 Policy Context
    • 5.2 Barriers to the Transition to EVs
      • 5.2.1 Lack of Charging Infrastructure
      • 5.2.2 Upfront Costs
      • 5.2.3 Limited Model Availability
    • 5.3 Whole of Government Response to Barriers
    • 5.4 Road Operator Response to Barriers
  • 6. Core Areas
    • 6.1 Registration and Licensing
      • 6.1.1 Registration and Licensing Data
      • 6.1.2 EV Labelling
      • 6.1.3 Roadworthiness and Roadside Testing
      • 6.1.4 Issues
    • 6.2 Road Access
      • 6.2.1 Literature Review
      • 6.2.2 Stakeholder Consultation
      • 6.2.3 Issues
    • 6.3 Road Design and Maintenance
      • 6.3.1 Electric Road Systems
      • 6.3.2 Issues
    • 6.4 Road Operations
      • 6.4.1 Issues
    • 6.5 Road Corridor Planning
      • 6.5.1 Literature Review
      • 6.5.2 Stakeholder Consultation
      • 6.5.3 Issues
    • 6.6 Road Signage
      • 6.6.1 Literature Review
      • 6.6.2 Stakeholder Consultation
      • 6.6.3 Issues
    • 6.7 Road Operator Standards
      • 6.7.1 EV Charger Plug Type
      • 6.7.2 Roadside EV Chargers
      • 6.7.3 Issues
  • 7. Non-Core Areas
    • 7.1 Governance
    • 7.2 Education
    • 7.3 Vehicles
      • 7.3.1 Quieter Vehicles
      • 7.3.2 Incident and Emergency Response
    • 7.4 Charging Infrastructure
      • 7.4.1 Funding
      • 7.4.2 Digital Infrastructure
      • 7.4.3 Payment Services
      • 7.4.4 Electricity Grid
  • 8. Key Issues
    • 8.1 Road Operator Core Functions
      • 8.1.1 Registration and Licensing
      • 8.1.2 Road Access
      • 8.1.3 Charging Infrastructure
    • 8.2 Road Operator Non-Core Functions
    • 8.2.1 Education
    • 8.2.2 Governance
    • 8.2.3 Charging Infrastructure
  • 9. Recommended Actions
    • 9.1 Road Operator Core Functions
    • 9.2 Road Operator Non-Core Functions
    • 9.3 Standards and Guidelines for Charging Infrastructure
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendix A Stakeholder Consultation Overview
  • Appendix B Differences Between EVs and ICEs
    • B.1 Emissions
      • B.1.1 Greenhouse Gases
      • B.1.2 Air Pollution and Associated Health Costs
      • B.1.3 Non-exhaust Emissions
      • B.1.4 Fluid Leakage
    • B.2 Vehicle Mass
    • B.3 Noise
    • B.4 Fuelling (Hydrogen)
    • B.5 Safety
    • B.6 Charging (Electric)
    • B.7 Breakdown Recovery
  • Appendix C Out of Scope Issues