Freight

Cover of Use of Auxiliary Brakes in Heavy Vehicles
Use of Auxiliary Brakes in Heavy Vehicles
  • Publication no: AP-R456-14
  • ISBN: 978-1-925037-57-9
  • Published: 25 March 2014

This report reviews the use of auxiliary brakes by drivers of heavy vehicles on long and steep descents. The research was in response to a number of serious incidents involving runaway trucks on long, steep grades and continued noise complaints from the community.

The research included a substantial literature review, surveys of truck drivers and local governments, field testing, and the development of a simulation program to assess differential speed limits on long steep grades.

It is important heavy vehicle drivers understand how to correctly use the auxiliary brake system for their own safety and the safety of other road users. The report proposes a driver training framework which includes elements of safe, efficient and polite driving.

It also recommends that Australian regulators consider mandatory auxiliary brake system performance requirements for certain categories of heavy vehicles.

  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Purpose
    • 1.2. Scope
    • 1.3. Methodology
      • 1.3.1. Background Research
      • 1.3.2. Stakeholder Surveys
      • 1.3.3. Vehicle Simulation and Testing
  • 2. Background Research
    • 2.1. Terms and Definitions
    • 2.2. Auxiliary Braking System Technologies
      • 2.2.1. Engine Brakes
      • 2.2.2. Exhaust Brakes
      • 2.2.3. Hydraulic Retarders
    • 2.3. Previous Studies into Auxiliary Braking
      • 2.3.1. UMTRI Studies
      • 2.3.2. SAE Papers
      • 2.3.3. Grade Severity Rating System
      • 2.3.4. IHSDM-VDANL
    • 2.4. Crash Statistics
      • 2.4.1. Truck Market Data
      • 2.4.2. Fleet Mix
      • 2.4.3. Truck Crashes on Steep Descents
      • 2.4.4. Summary
    • 2.5. Brake Noise and Amenity
      • 2.5.1. Amenity
      • 2.5.2. Public Perception of Road Freight
      • 2.5.3. ADR Noise Requirements
      • 2.5.4. Noise Advisory Signs
      • 2.5.5. Adverse Noise Impacts
      • 2.5.6. Engine Brake Noise Regulations
    • 2.6. Vehicle Standards and Regulations
      • 2.6.1. ECE Regulation No. 13
      • 2.6.2. ISO 12161:2006 - Endurance Braking System Test Procedures
      • 2.6.3. JASO C455:2004 – Retarder Road Test Procedure
      • 2.6.4. SAE J1489:2000 – Heavy Truck and Bus Retarder Downhill Performance Mapping Procedure
    • 2.7. Brake System Maintenance
    • 2.8. Future Technologies
  • 3. Stakeholder Surveys
    • 3.1. Driver Surveys
    • 3.2. Local Council Survey
  • 4. Vehicle Simulation and Testing
    • 4.1. Vehicle Simulation Model
    • 4.2. Field Testing a Model Validation
      • 4.2.1. Field Testing
      • 4.2.2. Model Validation
    • 4.3. Simulation Studies
  • 5. A Driver’s Checklist
  • 6. Conclusions
    • 6.1. Conclusions
      • 6.1.1. Background Research
      • 6.1.2. Stakeholder Surveys
      • 6.1.3. Vehicle Simulation and Testing
      • 6.1.4. A Driver’s Checklist
    • 6.2. Findings
      • 6.2.1. Driver Training
      • 6.2.2. Localised Noise Reduction Strategies
      • 6.2.3. Differential Speed Limits
      • 6.2.4. Mandatory Auxiliary Braking Standards
  • Appendix A Brake Heating Model
  • Appendix B General Driver Controller Algorithm State Chart
  • Appendix C General Driver Controller Algorithm Flow Chart
  • Appendix D Greenhill Descent Advisory Signs
  • Appendix E Vehicle Instrumentation
  • Appendix F Driver Checklist
  • F.1 Safe Driving
  • F.1.1 Tip 1: Driver Training
  • F.1.2 Tip 2: Know Your Truck
  • F.1.3 Tip 3: Safe Driving Techniques on Long Steep Grades
  • F.1.4 Tip 4: Regular Maintenance
  • F.1.5 Tip 5: Using Auxiliary Brakes in all Conditions
  • F.1.6 Tip 6: Maintain a Safe Driving Distance
  • F.2 Efficient Driving
  • F.2.1 Tip 1: Use the Auxiliary Braking System
  • F.2.2 Tip 2: Use Cruise Control
  • F.2.3 Tip 3: Use Secondary Retarders
  • F.2.4 Tip 4: Avoid Down Changing when Climbing a Hill
  • F.3 Polite Driving
  • F.3.1 Tip 1: Maintain Your Muffler
  • F.3.2 Tip 2: Obey the Warning Signs
  • F.3.3 Tip 3: Avoid Using Engine Brakes in Built Up Areas
  • F.3.4 Tip 4: Avoid Using Engine Brakes at Night
  • F.3.5 Tip 5: Avoid Aggressive Driving