Connected and automated vehicles

Cover of Emerging Digital Mapping Requirements for C-ITS
Emerging Digital Mapping Requirements for C-ITS
  • Publication no: AP-R432-13
  • ISBN: 978-1-921991-93-6
  • Published: 29 April 2013

This report forms part of the Austroads NT1632 Cooperative Intelligent transport systems (C-ITS)project, which has the overall purpose of progressing the development of a framework that will enable C-ITS to be deployed and operated in Australia and New Zealand.

C-ITS will require a combination of technologies. Three of the key enabling technologies are: (i) wireless communication, (ii) positioning and (iii) mapping. This report focuses on the emerging mapping requirements for C-ITS applications, and provides a recommended strategic approach to prepare for these emerging requirements, in line with the overall C-ITS Strategic Plan.

While this report makes reference to New Zealand, it has been written in an Australian context. This is because of the differences between how Australia and New Zealand are able to address C-ITS mapping requirements. However, much of the content in this report is applicable to New Zealand.

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Background
    • 2.1. C-ITS and ADAS
    • 2.2. Emerging C-ITS Applications
    • 2.3. Digital Road Maps
    • 2.4. International Initiatives
      • 2.4.1. Europe
      • 2.4.2. USA
      • 2.4.3. Japan
    • 2.5. International Standardisation for C-ITS Mapping
  • 3. Digital Road Map Data Required for C-ITS
    • 3.1. C-ITS and ADAS Application Requirements
      • 3.1.1. Geometry and Inventory Data Items Required for C-ITS Applications
      • 3.1.2. ADAS and Enhanced Mapping
      • 3.1.3. Mapping Data Items Required by ADAS
      • 3.1.4. Major Initiatives
    • 3.2. Digital Road Map Requirements
      • 3.2.1. Mapping Data Collection Methods and Business Processes
      • 3.2.2. Location Reference
      • 3.2.3. Data Formats and Storage
      • 3.2.4. Data Delivery Structure and Protocols
      • 3.2.5. API
    • 3.3. Challenges for Digital Road Map Data Supply for C-ITS
      • 3.3.1. Variability in Coverage for Roadway Data
      • 3.3.2. Resolution of Roadway Features
      • 3.3.3. Current Availability of Specific Roadway Attributes
      • 3.3.4. Data Standards
      • 3.3.5. Data Maintenance and Updating
  • 4. Emerging digital map technologies and Processes for C-ITS
    • 4.1. Enhanced Maps (eMap)
    • 4.2. Map Matching Systems
    • 4.3. Local Dynamic Map (LDM)
      • 4.3.1. Concept of LDM
      • 4.3.2. Positioning in the LDM
    • 4.4. The Reference Track Approach
      • 4.4.1. Example Applications
    • 4.5. Solution without Pre-installed Digital Map – Self-Organising Traffic Information System
  • 5. Overview of Australian Road Network Data Services
    • 5.1. Current Digital Road Data Products
    • 5.2. Main Providers of Australian Digital Road Map Data
      • 5.2.1. Government Road Network Data
      • 5.2.2. Australia’s and New Zealand’s Geospatial Governance Structures
      • 5.2.3. Commercial Map Data Providers
    • 5.3. Summary of Comments from Industry Consultations
      • 5.3.1. General
      • 5.3.2. Australia’s Position in Global Market
      • 5.3.3. Enhanced Maps for ADAS
      • 5.3.4. Possible First Generation of C-ITS Applications
      • 5.3.5. Challenges/Obstacles of C-ITS Mapping Deployment
      • 5.3.6. Data Sources for C-ITS Mapping
      • 5.3.7. Possible Working Models for C-ITS Mapping
  • 6. Discussion on Key Findings
    • 6.1. International C-ITS Mapping Progress
    • 6.2. Australian Mapping Industry Capability
    • 6.3. Challenges for C-ITS Mapping Development in Australia
    • 6.4. Proposed Strategic Actions for Discussion
      • 6.4.1. Australia’s Position – Adopting and Adapting
      • 6.4.2. Government’s Role
      • 6.4.3. Undertake Stakeholder Engagement and be Aligned with International Developments
      • 6.4.4. Engagement in International Standards and Specifications for C-ITS
      • 6.4.5. Establishment of an Agreed C-ITS Mapping Data Supply Chain/Model
      • 6.4.6. Other Considerations
    • 6.5. The Way Ahead
  • Evolving of C-ITS applications and slow process of international standardisation for C-ITS mapping
  • Variability in coverage, resolution, attributes for roadway mapping data
  • Lack of data for local roads
  • Risk of liability
  • Lack of investment in C-ITS mapping data collection, management and maintenance
  • Constraints of positioning and data transmission technologies
  • Latency of data updates for C-ITS
  • Lack of business model for industry
  • Skilled labour shortage
  • 7. Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix A C-ITS applications
  • Appendix B Market Uptake of ADAS Active Safety Systems
  • Appendix C Summary of Enhanced Digital Mapping Project
  • C.1 Commercial Feasibility
  • C.1.1 Road-level EDMap Databases
  • C.1.2 Lane-level EDMap Databases
  • C.1.3 Database Relative Effort
  • C.1.4 Effort Mitigation
  • C.2 Conclusions
  • Appendix D Map Data Items Required for C-ITS Applications – FHWA
  • Appendix E Map Data Collection Methods
  • E.1 Airborne Imagery
  • E.2 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR)
  • E.3 Feature Extraction and Measurement from Videologs
  • E.4 Mobile Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR)
  • E.5 Multiple GPS Tracking
  • E.6 Roadway Data Read Directly by Vehicles
  • Appendix F Australia’s Geospatial Governance Structure
  • F.1 OSP
  • F.2 ANZLIC
  • F.3 Geoscience Australia
  • F.4 PSMA Australia Limited
  • F.5 Commonwealth, State and Territory and Local Governments
  • Appendix G PSMA Australia
  • G.1 Current Available Roadway Mapping Data
  • Appendix H The Lawrence Review