Bridges

Cover of Design Rules for Bridge Bearings and Expansion Joints
Design Rules for Bridge Bearings and Expansion Joints
  • Publication no: AP-R405-12
  • ISBN: 978-1-921991-26-4
  • Published: 18 June 2012

In modern bridge structures, bridge bearings and expansion joints are commonly the source of most maintenance and performance issues. In some situations their performance can lead to the closure/failure of major structures and their maintenance can be extremely difficult and costly to implement.

The report is a literature review that summarises the features, usage and performance of bridge bearings and expansion joints throughout the world. The common failures and the proposed solutions to rectify the failures of the most used bearings and expansion joints are discussed. It contains Information on the State Road Authorities’ current practice in design, installation and maintenance of bridge bearings and expansion joints.

As well as information on the current practice in manufacture and supply of bridge bearings and expansion joints of Australian providers. The manufacturers’ recommendations on the solutions to rectifying the identified failures are provided. The fact that each State Road Authority has developed and/or used its own technical guidelines and specifications has brought in a level of inconsistency in the current practice throughout the country. The report also provides recommendations on future directions to overcome this issue.

  • 1.1. Background
  • 1.2. Aims
  • 1.3. Scope
  • 1.4. Outline
  • 2.1. General
    • 2.1.1. Historical Development
    • 2.1.2. Functions of Bridge Bearings
    • 2.1.3. General Design Considerations
    • 2.1.1. Historical Development
    • 2.1.2. Functions of Expansion Joints
    • 2.1.3. General Design Considerations
  • 2.2. Common Types of Bridge Bearings
    • 2.2.1. Elastomeric Bearings
    • 2.2.2. Pot Bearings
    • 2.2.3. Mechanical Bearings
    • 2.2.4. Disc and Spherical Bearings
    • 2.2.5. General Causes of Bearing Failure
    • 2.2.1. Steel Sliding Plate Joints
    • 2.2.2. Asphaltic Plug Joints
    • 2.2.3. Cold Applied Sealant Joints
    • 2.2.4. Compression Seal Joints
    • 2.2.5. Strip Seal Joints
    • 2.2.6. Moulded Rubber Joints
    • 2.2.7. Bonded Metal/Elastomer Joints
    • 2.2.8. Fingerplate Joints
    • 2.2.9. Modular Joints
  • 2.3. Design Codes/Specifications
    • 2.3.1. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification
    • 2.3.2. European EN 1337
    • 2.3.3. Comparison of AS 5100 with AASHTO LRFD and EN 1337
    • 2.3.1. Australian Bridge Design Standard AS 5100
    • 2.3.2. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification
  • 3.1. Granor Rubber and Engineering Pty. Ltd
    • 3.1.1. Types of Bearings Manufactured
    • 3.1.2. Manufacturer Recommendations
    • 3.1.1. Types of Expansion Joints Manufactured
    • 3.1.2. Manufacturer Recommendations
  • 3.2. Ludowici
    • 3.2.1. Types of Bearings Manufactured
    • 3.2.2. Manufacturer Recommendations
    • 3.2.1. Types of Expansion Joints Manufactured
    • 3.2.2. Manufacturer Recommendations
  • 3.3. Trelleborg
    • 3.3.1. Types of Bearings Manufactured
    • 3.3.2. Manufacturer Recommendations
    • 3.3.1. Types of Expansion Joints Manufactured
    • 3.3.2. Manufacturer Recommendations
  • 4.1. Popular Types of Bridge Bearings Used Nationwide
    • 4.1.1. Elastomeric Bearings
    • 4.1.2. Pot Bearings
    • 4.1.3. Mechanical Bearings
    • 4.1.4. Mortar Pads
    • 4.1.1. Fixed Joint
    • 4.1.2. Sliding Steel Plate
    • 4.1.3. Asphaltic Plug Joints
    • 4.1.4. Pour Sealant Joints
    • 4.1.5. Compression Seal Joints
    • 4.1.6. Strip Seal Joints
    • 4.1.7. Moulded Rubber Joints
    • 4.1.8. Bonded Metal/Elastomer Expansion Joints
    • 4.1.9. Fingerplate Joints
    • 4.1.10. Modular Joints
  • 4.2. Roads and Maritime Services, New South Wales (RMS)
    • 4.2.1. Specifications
    • 4.2.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.2.3. Testing
    • 4.2.4. Failures
    • 4.2.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.2.1. Specifications
    • 4.2.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.2.3. Testing
    • 4.2.4. Failures
    • 4.2.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.3. Roads Corporation, Victoria (VicRoads)
    • 4.3.1. Specifications
    • 4.3.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.3.3. Testing
    • 4.3.4. Failures
    • 4.3.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.3.1. Specifications
    • 4.3.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.3.3. Testing
    • 4.3.4. Failures
    • 4.3.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.4. Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland (TMR)
    • 4.4.1. Specifications
    • 4.4.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.4.3. Testing
    • 4.4.4. Failures
    • 4.4.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.4.1. Specifications
    • 4.4.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.4.3. Testing
    • 4.4.4. Failures
    • 4.4.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.5. Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA)
    • 4.5.1. Specifications
    • 4.5.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.5.3. Testing
    • 4.5.4. Failures
    • 4.5.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.5.1. Specifications
    • 4.5.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.5.3. Testing
    • 4.5.4. Failures
    • 4.5.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.6. Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, South Australia (DPTI)
    • 4.6.1. Specifications
    • 4.6.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.6.3. Testing
    • 4.6.4. Failures
    • 4.6.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.6.1. Specifications
    • 4.6.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.6.3. Testing
    • 4.6.4. Failures
    • 4.6.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.7. Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources, Tasmania (DIER)
    • 4.7.1. Specifications
    • 4.7.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.7.3. Testing
    • 4.7.4. Failures
    • 4.7.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.7.1. Specifications
    • 4.7.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.7.3. Testing
    • 4.7.4. Failures
    • 4.7.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.8. Department of Lands and Planning, (formerly Department of Planning and Infrastructure) Northern Territory (DPI)
    • 4.8.1. Specifications
    • 4.8.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.8.3. Testing
    • 4.8.4. Failures
    • 4.8.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.8.1. Specifications
    • 4.8.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.8.3. Testing
    • 4.8.4. Failures
    • 4.8.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.9. ACT Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS)
    • 4.9.1. Specifications
    • 4.9.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.9.3. Testing
    • 4.9.4. Failures
    • 4.9.1. Specifications
    • 4.9.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.9.3. Testing
    • 4.9.4. Failures
    • 4.9.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.10. New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA)
    • 4.10.1. Specifications
    • 4.10.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.10.3. Testing
    • 4.10.4. Failures
    • 4.10.5. Repair and Maintenance
    • 4.10.1. Specifications
    • 4.10.2. Design and Construction
    • 4.10.3. Testing
    • 4.10.4. Failures
    • 4.10.5. Repair and Maintenance
  • 4.11. Summary on SRA’s Practice
    • 4.11.1. Modes of Failures
    • 4.11.2. State Specifications and Technical Standards
    • 4.11.3. Recommendations
    • 4.11.1. Modes of Failure
    • 4.11.2. State Specifications and Technical Standards
    • 4.11.3. Recommendations
  • 5.1. Proposed Investigation
  • 5.2. Elastomeric Bearings
    • 5.2.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.2.2. Root Causes
    • 5.2.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.2.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.2.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
    • 5.2.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.2.2. Root Causes
    • 5.2.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.2.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.2.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
  • 5.3. Pot Bearings
    • 5.3.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.3.2. Root Causes
    • 5.3.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.3.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.3.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
    • 5.3.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.3.2. Root Causes
    • 5.3.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.3.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.3.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
  • 5.4. Proposed Changes for Other Bearing Types
    • 5.4.1. Plain Pads and Strips
    • 5.4.2. Mechanical Bearings
    • 5.4.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.4.2. Root Causes
    • 5.4.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.4.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.4.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
  • 6.1. Background
  • 6.2. Generic Specification for Spherical and Disc Bearings
    • 6.2.1. General Requirements
    • 6.2.2. Spherical Bearings
    • 6.2.3. Disc Bearings
  • 2.1. General
  • 2.2. Common Types of Expansion Joints
  • 2.3. Design Codes/Specifications
  • 3.1. Granor
  • 3.2. Miska
  • 3.3. Trelleborg
  • 3.4. HMS Civils Division
  • 4.1. Popular Types of Bridge Expansion Joints Used Nationwide
  • 4.2. Roads and Maritime Services, New South Wales (RMS)
  • 4.3. Roads Corporation, Victoria (VicRoads)
  • 4.4. Department of Transport and Main Roads, Queensland (TMR)
  • 4.5. Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA)
  • 4.6. Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, South Australia (DPTI)
  • 4.7. Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources, Tasmania (DIER)
  • 4.8. Department of Lands and Planning, (formerly Department of Planning and Infrastructure) Northern Territory (DPI)
  • 4.9. ACT Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS)
  • 4.10. New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA)
  • 4.11. Summary on Service and Failure Issues
  • 5.1. Proposed Investigation
  • 5.2. Compression Seal Joints
  • 5.3. Strip Seal Joints
  • 5.4. Bonded Metal/Elastomer Expansion Joints
  • 5.5. Fingerplate Joints
    • 5.5.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.5.2. Root Causes
    • 5.5.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.5.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.5.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
  • 5.6. Modular Joints
    • 5.6.1. Identified Problems
    • 5.6.2. Root Causes
    • 5.6.3. Suggested Maintenance to Rectify the Problems
    • 5.6.4. Possible Upgrade and Modification
    • 5.6.5. Proposed Changes to AS 5100 for Future Use
  • 5.7. Proposed Changes for Other Joint Types
  • 5.8. Selection of Expansion Joints
  • 6.1. General
  • 6.2. Joint Types
  • 6.3. Requirements
  • 6.4. Anchorage of Deck Joints
  • 6.5. Drainage
  • 6.6. Specific Provisions for Compression Joints
  • 6.7. Specific Provisions for Strip Seal Joints
  • 6.8. Specific Provisions for Modular Deck Joints
  • 6.9. Specific Provisions for Fingerplate Joints
  • 6.10. Joint Sealants
  • 6.11. Installation
  • 6.12. Monitoring, Maintenance and Rehabilitation
    • 6.12.1. General
    • 6.12.2. Monitoring
    • 6.12.3. Maintenance of Joints
    • 6.12.4. Joint Rehabilitation