Asset management

Cover of Review of Skid Resistance and Measurement Methods
Review of Skid Resistance and Measurement Methods
  • Publication no: AP-T177-11
  • ISBN: 978-1-921709-73-9
  • Published: 24 May 2011

This report provides a review of research and developments in skid resistance measurement methods. The objective is to provide up-to-date information on the major issues (e.g. variability) involved in skid resistance measurement.

This report supplements the existing Austroads technical reports – Guide to Asset Management Part 5F: Skid Resistance (2009), Guide to Asset Management Part 5G: Texture (2009) and Guidance for the Development of Policy to Manage Skid Resistance AP-R374-11, and aims to provide a better understanding of the variables in skid resistance measurement, as they may apply to skid resistance management.

  • 1. BACKGROUND
    • 1.1. Objective and Scope
  • 2. SKID RESISTANCE – INTRODUCTION
    • 2.1. Surface Texture Characteristics in Relation to Skid Resistance
      • 2.1.1. Microtexture and Skid Resistance
      • 2.1.2. Macrotexture and Skid Resistance
  • 3. SKID RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT METHODS
    • 3.1. Continuous Network Measurement Methods
      • 3.1.1. Sideways-force Coefficient Routine Investigation Machine (SCRIM)
      • 3.1.2. GripTester
      • 3.1.3. Road Analyser and Recorder (ROAR)
    • 3.2. Portable Site Measurement Methods
      • 3.2.1. British Pendulum Tester (BPT)
      • 3.2.2. Direct Friction (DF) Tester
      • 3.2.3. Vericom
  • 4. SURFACE TEXTURE MEASUREMENT METHODS
    • 4.1. Macrotexture Measurement Methods
      • 4.1.1. Volumetric Techniques
      • 4.1.2. Visual Texture Evaluation
      • 4.1.3. Laser Profile Technique
      • 4.1.4. Image Analysis Techniques
    • 4.2. Microtexture Measurement Methods
  • 5. FACTORS AFFECTING SKID RESISTANCE
    • 5.1. Slip Ratio
    • 5.2. Slip Speed
      • 5.2.1. Interaction between Slip Ratio and Slip Speed
    • 5.3. Water Film Thickness
    • 5.4. Tyre Condition
      • 5.4.1. Contact Stress and Tyre Hardness
      • 5.4.2. Tread Design and Wear
    • 5.5. Temperature
      • 5.5.1. Temperature Susceptibility of Synthetic Rubber
    • 5.6. Road Geometry
    • 5.7. Surface Contamination and Rainfall
  • 6. SEASONAL VARIATION
    • 6.1. Allowances for Seasonal Variation
  • 7. SKID RESISTANCE CORRELATION EXERCISE
    • 7.1. PIARC International Friction Index (IFI)
    • 7.2. HERMES Project
    • 7.3. Australian Runway and Roads Friction Workshop
    • 7.4. Austroads Christchurch Correlation Study
      • 7.4.1. IFI Conversion
    • 7.5. New Zealand Correlation Studies
    • 7.6. Harmonisation of SCRIM and GripTester in Chile
    • 7.7. TYROSAFE Project
    • 7.8. Summary of Correlation Exercise Review
  • 8. POLISH RESISTANCE OF AGGREGATE
    • 8.1. Test Method Development
    • 8.2. Review of Polish Resistance Test Methods
      • 8.2.1. PSV Test (BSEN 1097.8)
      • 8.2.2. PAFV Test – Vertical Wheel Method (AS1141.40)
      • 8.2.3. PAFV Test – Horizontal Bed Method (AS1141.41)
      • 8.2.4. Wehner Schulze Tester
      • 8.2.5. Accelerated Polishing Machine
  • 9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSV AND CRASHES
    • 9.1. PSV versus Skid Resistance
      • 9.1.1. PAFV versus Skid Resistance
    • 9.2. Skid Resistance versus Crash Rate
    • 9.3. Discussion on PSV versus Crashes
  • 10. INFORMATION FROM OTHER PROJECTS
    • 10.1. Management of Scarce and Quality Resources (TT1352)
    • 10.2. Aggregate Polishing Test – Replacing Reference Aggregate (TT1608)
  • 11. DISCUSSION
    • 11.1. Seasonal Variation
    • 11.2. Aggregate Polish Resistance
    • 11.3. Harmonisation of Skid Resistance Measurements
    • 11.4. Discussion on Standardisation for Australasia
  • 12. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • 12.1. Discussion and Recommendations for Australasian Calibration Exercise
    • 12.2. Discussion and Recommendations for Seasonal Variation Investigation
  • REFERENCES