Asset management

Cover of Harmonisation of Pavement Markings and National Pavement Marking Specification
Harmonisation of Pavement Markings and National Pavement Marking Specification
  • Publication no: AP-R578-18
  • ISBN: 978-1-925671-72-8
  • Published: 27 August 2018

Pavement markings constitute a key element of safe system infrastructure. They are a significant road asset of interest to all road users. There are variations in road agency practice with respect to longitudinal and transverse linemarking types and widths and other pavement markings; as a result, many do not comply with Australian Standard AS 1742.2:2009.

Specifications for pavement markings and materials differ between jurisdictions and the intervention levels for the replacement/remarking of pavement markings also differ. There is a strong need for harmonised performance based specifications/design criteria for pavement. The development of a harmonised performance-based specification for linemarkings has been on the agenda for the Austroads Road Authority Pavement Markings Group for several years.

This report documents a project undertaken to achieve national harmonisation through the development of national performance specification/criteria for pavement markings. The project investigated:

  • longitudinal and transverse linemarking types   and widths and other pavement markings used by different road agencies   (States and Territories) with the aim of harmonising them as far as practical
  • road agency pavement marking specifications in   order to develop a national performance specification for pavement markings.

Emphasis in this project was the harmonisation of the widths and specifications of stop lines, give-way lines, turns, pedestrian cross walk lines, dividing lines for multi-lane roads, tram lines, pavement arrows, pavement letters, audio-tactile line markings and wide centreline treatments.

  • Summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1 Background
    • 1.2 Purpose of the Project
    • 1.3 Objectives
    • 1.4 Relevant Groups
    • 1.5 Outcomes of Years 1 and 2 of the Project
  • 2. Overview of Current Practice to Harmonise Linemarkings
    • 2.1 Current Standards for Selected Linemarkings
      • 2.1.1 Longitudinal Lines
      • 2.1.2 Stop Lines
      • 2.1.3 Give-way Lines
      • 2.1.4 Turn Lines
      • 2.1.5 Pedestrian Cross-walk Lines
      • 2.1.6 Dividing Lines on Multi-lane Roads
      • 2.1.7 Continuity Lines
      • 2.1.8 Tram, Tramway and Transverse Lines
      • 2.1.9 Audio-tactile Linemarkings
      • 2.1.10 Wide-centreline Treatments
      • 2.1.11 Pavement Arrows
      • 2.1.12 Pavement Letters and Numerals
      • 2.1.13 Bike Paths/Shared Paths
    • 2.2 Harmonised Linemarking Practice
  • 3. Current Linemarking Practice in Australia
    • 3.1 Methodology
      • 3.1.1 Survey Participants
      • 3.1.2 Survey Questions
    • 3.2 Preliminary Results from each Agency
      • 3.2.1 Summary of Responses to Question 1–9 and 12–14
      • 3.2.2 Summary of Responses – ATLM Installation Methods
      • 3.2.3 Summary of Responses – Maintenance of ATLM
  • 4. Agreed Harmonisation of Good Practice
    • 4.1 Preferred Approaches to Linemarking Practice
      • 4.1.1 Stop and Give-way Lines
      • 4.1.2 Optional Broken Turn Line
      • 4.1.3 Turn Lines
      • 4.1.4 Pedestrian Crosswalk Guidelines
      • 4.1.5 Replacement of Dividing Lines for Multi-lane Roads
      • 4.1.6 Tram, Tramway and Transverse Lines
      • 4.1.7 Audio-tactile Linemarkings (ATLM)
      • 4.1.8 Wide-centrelines Treatments (WCLT)
      • 4.1.9 Pavement Arrows
      • 4.1.10 Pavement Letters and Numerals
      • 4.1.11 Bike Paths/Shared Paths
    • 4.2 Justification for the Move to Preferred Markings
      • 4.2.1 Proposed Line Types
      • 4.2.2 Stop and Give-way Lines
      • 4.2.3 Turn Lines
      • 4.2.4 Pedestrian Cross-walk Lines
      • 4.2.5 Replacement of Dividing Lines for Multi-lane Roads in Urban Areas
      • 4.2.6 Tram, Tramway and Transverse Lines
      • 4.2.7 Audio-tactile Linemarkings
      • 4.2.8 Wide-centreline Treatments
      • 4.2.9 Pavement Arrows
      • 4.2.10 Pavement Letters and Numerals
      • 4.2.11 Bike Paths/Shared Paths
      • 4.2.12 Other Line Types
    • 4.3 Agreed Approaches
    • 4.4 ATLM Experimental Testing
      • 4.4.1 Northern Territory
      • 4.4.2 Victoria
      • 4.4.3 New South Wales
      • 4.4.4 Western Australia
  • 5. Conclusions and Recommendations
    • 5.1 Criteria of Clauses
    • 5.2 Challenges to Achieving a National Specification
    • 5.3 Development of Requirements
    • 5.4 Further Work with Standards Australia
    • 5.5 Where to Next?
  • References
  • Appendix A Roads Australia Report on Technical Specifications and Procurement
    • A.1 Key Recommendations and Actions
    • A.1.1 Recommendation 1
    • A.1.2 Recommendation 2
    • A.1.3 Recommendation 3
    • A.1.4 Recommendation 4
    • A.1.5 Recommendation 5
    • A.1.6 Recommendation 6
  • Appendix B Specifications and Drawings
    • B.1 South Australia
    • B.2 Queensland
    • B.3 Western Australia
      • B.3.1 Audio-tactile Trial (York-Merrdein Road)
    • B.4 Victoria
    • B.5 New South Wales
      • B.5.1 Audio-tactile Linemarkings
  • Appendix C International Review of Audio-tactile Linemarkings
    • C.1 Introduction
      • C.1.1 Purpose
      • C.1.2 Background
      • C.1.3 Terminology
    • C.2 New Zealand
      • C.2.1 Maintenance of Audio-tactile Profiled Road Markings
      • C.2.2 Cleaning ATP Road Markings
      • C.2.3 Removal, Reinstatement and Reseals
      • C.2.4 Renewal and Replacement
      • C.2.5 Product Materials Used for ATP Road Markings
    • C.3 United States of America
      • C.3.1 Milled Rumble Strips
      • C.3.2 General Maintenance
      • C.3.3 Maintenance of Rumble Strips During Pavement Maintenance
      • C.3.4 National Cooperative Highway Research Program Maintenance Survey Results
      • C.3.5 Mitigating Adverse Effects
      • C.3.6 Raised Rumble Strips
      • C.3.7 Issues Arising from Snow-Ploughing
      • C.3.8 Raised Pavement Markers (RPM)
      • C.3.9 Use of Thermoplastics
      • C.3.10 Thermoplastics Cracking in Cold Climates
      • C.3.11 Use of Snow-ploughable Raised Pavement Markers (SRMP)
      • C.3.12 Expected Lifetime Method of Maintenance
      • C.3.13 Inspection Method of Maintenance
    • C.4 Canada
      • C.4.1 Shoulder Rumble Strip Maintenance Guidelines
      • C.4.2 Centreline Rumble Strip Guidelines
    • C.5 Norway
      • C.5.1 Auditory and Vibratory Devices to Prevent Involuntary Lane Departure
      • C.5.2 Enhanced Road Markings
      • C.5.3 Evaluation of Reinforced Centreline Markings
    • C.6 Germany
      • C.6.1 Impact of Milled Shoulder Rumble Strips on Crash Prevention
    • C.7 Austria
      • C.7.1 Practices for Rumble Strip Use
      • C.7.2 Use of Rumble Strips at Level Crossings
    • C.8 Conference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR)
      • C.8.1 Maintenance of Shoulder Rumble Strips
      • C.8.2 Practices in other CEDR Member Countries
    • C.9 Scotland
    • C.10 Netherlands
      • C.10.1 Road Maintenance Strategy of Rijkswaterstaat, Bureau voor den Waterstaat, Dutch Ministry of
    • C.11 Hong Kong
      • C.11.1 Removal of Thermoplastic Road Markings
      • C.11.2 Masking of Thermoplastic Road Markings
      • C.11.3 Re-painting of Thermoplastic Road Markings
      • C.11.4 Common Defects with Thermoplastic Road Markings
    • C.12 Sweden
      • C.12.1 Materials for Approval for Use as Road Markings
      • C.12.2 Maintenance
    • C.13 Belgium
      • C.13.1 Assessing Acoustic Properties
    • C.14 Conclusions
      • C.14.1 Broad International Findings
    • C.15 References
  • Appendix D Draft National Specification for Longitudinal Pavement Marking
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Acronyms